“Despite serious loses , they resisted strongly until Brennus fell wounded.They retreated stubbornly , killing their wounded rather than leaving them to the mercy of the Greeks. The earth is said to have trembled again that night.Celtic losses amounted to over 25000 dead. In despreation Brennus took his own life.”
– Stephen Allen (Lords of battle: the world of the Celtic warrior )
Link to Book
We know that Alexander’s Invasion on Borders of Bharatvarsha had changed the course of Indian History.Largescale migrations took place during that period.In the coming chapter “Capisa” we shall also look at the story of “coming back of Vanvasi Ram”from Anatolia to Capisa . Vanvasi Ram came back to Capisa (After Fall of Macedonia and Greece )with the culture of Anatolia (present Turkistan). People of Capisa were aware of this History. That ancient history was forgotten with the fall of Capisa . And now we have forgotten Capisa too. But Islamic Invador’s historian Al-biruni’s accont of Kabulshahi dynasty still help us to unfold the ancient historical truth . In coming chapter about “Capisa” – The kabulshahi Hindu kingdom we shall check this fact.
To begin with, let us look at the historical facts about Alexander’s invasion on Indian border and how Indian origin warrior clans reacted to it.
Alexandr’s Invasion (320 B.C.)
Noted Historian J.P.Mittal gives narraive account of Alexander’s invasion. Mittal mentions in his book “History of ancient India From 4250 b.c. to 637 A.d.” that.. “During the period of Gautamiputra Satakarni Hala ( 341 B.c. to 310 B.c.) Alexander invaded India.Alexander was the son of Philip, the king of Macedonia, in the north of Greece. Alexander ascended the throrne in 335 B.C. He conquered Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt. He defeated Persia and Iran. Then he conquered Bactria and Afghanistan. In 320 B.C.Alexander invaded India.
Alexander attacked Hasti the ruler of Gandhar. His capital was Pushklavati,which was in ancient times founded by Pushkar the son of Bharat , the younger brother of shri Rama on the confluence of rivers Kubha ( Kabul) and Suvaster (Swat). Alexander laid the siege of Pushkalavati for full 2o days till it was captured.Hasti was killed while fighting.Ambhi was the ruler of Takshila (Rawalpindi) which was founded by Taksha the son of Bharat , the younger brother of shri Rama. Ambhi accepted the suzerainty of Alexander and helped him to cross river Sindhu (Indus).
Puru(Porus) was the ruler of Kaikaya, which comprised the region of Gujarat, Shahpur and Jhelam (Punjab region of Pakistan). Puru faced Alexander on the opposite bank of the river Vitasta (Jhelam). Alexander attacked Puru from behind. History is not clear that whether Puru was defeated or not .Puru”s daughter married to Ajaysingh, the ruler of Jammu. Ajaysingh fought pitched battle but killed. Puru accepted the suzerainty of Alexander.”Our historical record do not give perfact historicalpicture. In fact Indian history has got missing chapters since Alexander’s invasion.
Mittal further mentions that….
“After Kaikey there was the Kingdom of Madra. It was between the rivers chandrabhaga (chenab) and payusni ( Ravi). Bijaysingh , son of Ajaysingh the ruler of Jammu accepted the suzerainty of Alexander.
Afler Madra was the kingdom of Bahlika. It was between the rivers Payusni (Ravi) and vipasa (Beas).Alexander then crossed the river Ravi and defeated rulers of Bahlika.
When the armies of Alexander reached the river Beas , they refused to proceed further.His soldiers felt home sick. Many soldiers had already lost their lives. The opposition in Punjab gave them the foretaste of what they were likely to face after crossing the river Beas. Guatamiputra Satvahan Hala was the most powerful emperor of Magadha. Alexander’s army got afraid of the power of this Magdha Emperor.They retreated towards their home country Greece in 326 B.C.
Thereafter Hala not only restored the fallen fortunes of his dynasty but also brought under his rule vast territories. He had been described as the destroyer of Sakas , Yavanas and Pahlavas.”
Link to Mittal’s book
Sons of Turvasu
Mittal also mentions that Andhra , Dravida , Chola, Pandya and Kerala States were in Baluchistan (Pakistan), The descendnts of Turvasu ruled these states. Yavana defeated them. But they did not accept their suzerainty and shifted to the south India and founded these states there.Malyadhwaja the ruler of Pandya Dynadty participated in the Mahabharat war on the side of Pandava.(p-421). Minakshi was daughter of Malyadwaja. Panyan build Minakshi temple in Madurai.
This is the historical account of invasion and victory story of Alexander who also sacked Capisa , the Gateway of India. Bharatvanshis were the rulers of Capisa.
Now let us look at the historical events, not narrated by any historians. It is the story of First Blood of Bharatvarsh.Who ever lived and died for the cause of Bharatvarsh.Fall of Capisa , the gateway of India means crisis for India. Alexander’s invasion compeled the Bharatvanshi ruler of Capisa to go for “Vanvas” (Exile). It is the story of sufferings and grief of “vanvasi Ram”.
The vanvasi “Ram” latter on called Barbarian”in European history. Since then , Ram and Bharat served the cause of Bharatvarsh without saying single word about thier sufferings..Bharatvarsh ever boubled in their veins. Even Islamic invader’s historian Al- Biruni gave us some clues but we nevevr tried to search the further facts.Yes,.Al -biruni said that Hindu ruler of Kabul were Turks of Tibetan Origin. It is mysterous record.
Al-birenu’s clue suggest “Ram” went for vanvas in Anatolia( Asia Minor). In fact Turkic tribes reached present Turkastan hardly before thousand years . So, when Al –Birenu wrote history there was Turkstan there . But in fact hwen Bharatvanshi(Kabulshahi ruler) went and come back to Capisa with Culture of Anatolia No turkic tribes dwelled in Anatolia. Before 2300 years no turkic tribes reached there.
Vanvas in Anatolia – Ionia -Yavana
The history of Anatolia says, how differnt ancient Indian warrior migrant tribes had their colonies and kingdoms at the border of Macedonia and Greece. History of Anatolia says how their European ally tribes helped them in the time of crisis before 2300 years.History of Anatolia says facts about ,who were their ally tribes and how did ally tribes helped them in time of crisis.
The account can fill you with pathos and grief. This missing chapter of history are clue to “Ram” and his long time sufferings. Without disclosing this missing chapters it is very difficult to recognise “Vanvasi Ram.”
Now let us go towards straight facts.
link to my previous article now explain meaning of Ionia ( Aai= word for mother in kathiyawad. Anatolia is reminder to our ancient kingdom Anarta..Anarta was very large kingdom beyond our imagination)
First of all let us try to understand the term Anatolia – Ionia – Yavana .
Yavana or Yona is grouped under western countries along with Sindhu, Madra, Kekeya, Gandhara and Kamboja as per the descriptions in the epic Mahabharata. In later history, this word was used to indicate the Greeks and the Arabs, leading to much confusion.
Yavanas were described to be beyond Gandhara. There was another country mentioned in the epic as Parama Yona, in the far west of Yavana. This could be the Ionia of Greece, somehow related to Indian Ionians or Yavanas. The name Yavana could be the Sanskritized form of the name Ionia. Some believes that the name Ionia originated from the Sanskrit word Ayonija meaning one who born not from a (human) womb or people with extra ordinary origins. Yavanas, Sakas, Pahlavas and Hunas were sometimes described as Mlechhas. Sometimes along with them, the Madras, Kambojas, Kekeyas, Sindhus and Gandharas were included. This name was used to indicate their cultrural differences with the Vedic culture, prevailed in the Kuru-Panchala Kingdoms.
Link to Yavana Kingdom
the Vedic society acknowledged their extra ordinary skills, but kept them as outcasts. An account in the epic depicts Yavanas as the descendants of Turvusu, one of the cursed sons of king Yayati. Only the fifth son Puru’s line was considered to be the successors of Yayati’s throne, as he cursed the other four sons and denied them kingship. Pauravas inherited the Yayati’s original empire and stayed in the Gangatic plain who later created the Kuru and Panchala Kingdoms. They were the followers of proper Vedic culture.
Yavana was the name of one of the sons of Maharaja Yayati whowas given the part of the world today known as Turkey to rule. The Yavanas were therefore kshatriyas, and later on, by giving up the brahminical culture, they became mleccha-yavanas. Descriptions of the Yavanas are in the Mahabharata (Adi-parva 85.34). Another prince called Turvasu was also known as Yavana, and his country was conquered by Sahadeva, one of the Pandavas. The western Yavana joined with Duryodhana in the Battle of Kurukshetra under the pressure of Karna.
wikipedia clearly says that yavana kingdom had relation with the sons of Tarvasu. The name of the Taurus Mountain and Haley river is also suggestive. It suggests that sons of Tarvasu were ruling the Anatolia from were the rivers Euphrates and Tigris originates. The Troy colony was in Anatolia. Anatolia is the meeting point of Europe and Asia.
It suggests clear connection between the rulers of south India Andhra , Dravida , Chola, Pandya and Kerala (All sons of Tarvasu), Hala satvahan and colonies of Anatolia.
It is also possible that after drying up of Sarswati they might had migrated towards far west.
Geographical name as clue
Taurus Mountains (Turkish: Toros Daglari) are a mountain complex in southern Turkey, from which the Euphrates and Tigris descend into Iraq. It divides the Mediterranean coastal region of southern Turkey from the central Anatolian Plateau.
The system extends along a curve from Lake Egirdir in the west to the upper reaches of the Euphrates and Tigris in the east. The Taurus complex is divided into four ranges.
Haihaya in India
The Haihayas were an ancient confederacy of five ganas (clans), who claimed their common ancestry from Yadu. According to the Harivamsha (34.1898), Haihaya was the great grandson of Yadu and grandson of Sahasrajit. In the Vishnu Purana (IV.11), all the five Haihaya clans are mentioned together as the Talajanghas. The five Haihaya clans were Vitihotra, Sharyata (mentioned elsewhere in the Puranas as the descendants of Sharyati, a son of Vaivasvata Manu), Bhoja, Avanti and Tundikera. The Haihayas migrated from the west to the present-day Malwa region of Western Madhya Pradesh). The Puranas style the Haihayas as the first ruling dynasty of Avanti.
Foundation of Mahishmati
In the Harivamsha (33.1847), the honour of founding their future capital city of Mahishmati (present-day Maheshwar) was attributed to the Haihaya king Mahishmant, son of Sahanja. But according to the Padma Purana (VI.115), the city was actually founded by a certain Mahisha.
Probably, during the rule of the later Vitihotras, the whole Avanti region developed into two realms, divided by the Vindhyas, having principal cities at Mahishmati and Ujjayini (present day Ujjain). According to the Matsya Purana (5.37), Pulika, one of the ministers of Ripunjaya, the last Vitihotra king of Ujjayini killed his master and made his son Pradyota new king
A number of early medieval dynasties, which include the Kalachuris and the Mushakavamsha of Kerala, claimed their descent from the Haihayas. The Haihayas of eastern India fought against Islamists invaders in medieval times.
In previous posts we have checked presence of Pala , Pandyan ,Haihaya, Zala (Ancient ruling clans of Bharatvarsha) in Anatolia (1300 B.C.)
Trouble Zone Anatolia
Now let us go straight to the history of Alexander’s invadion.
when Alexander invaded Hindustan there emrged kingdom like Bithynia and Galatia in Anatolia.There were ancient kingdoms named Pontus , Phrygia,Paphlagonia ,Cappadocia in Asia Minor. History of Anatolia mentions presence of Cocani and Mariyandi tribes there in Anatolia.Their Germanic and celtic allly tribes tell us the story of their love towardsf Bharatvarsh and its soverenity. The missing chapter says us the story of timetested First blood of Bharatvarsh.Here “you can recognise “Ram” who took leadership of Great Raid on Macedonia and Greece. Here you can understand why “Bharatvanshis” of Kubulshahi dynasty(Capisa) had the culture of Anatolia.Yes history of Anatolia says the history of “Ram” and “Bharat” and Hastinapur.
Strabo’s “Geography” gives us clues to our First blood. He mentions that..“Now as one sails into the Euxine Sea from the Propontis, one has on his left the parts which adjoin Byzantium (these belong to the Thracians, and are called “the Left-hand Parts” of the Pontus), and on his right the parts which adjoin Chalcedon. The first of these latter belong to the Bithynians, the next to the Mariandyni (by some also called Caucones), the next to the Paphlygonians as far as the Halys River, and the next to the Pontic Cappadocians and to the people next in order after them as far as Colchis. All these are called the Right-hand Parts of the Pontus. Now Eupator reigned over the whole of this seacoast, beginning at Colchis and extending as far as Heracleia, but the parts farther on, extending as far as the mouth of the Pontus and Chalcedon, remained under the rule of the king of Bithynia. But when the kings had been overthrown, the Romans preserved the same boundaries, so that Heracleia was added to Pontus and the parts farther on went to the Bithynians.”
History of Anatolia says that this tribe lived to the northeast of the country and were not submitted to the Bithynians, when they conquered the country.
Mariandyni (Mariandunoi, Mariandenoi, or Maruandunoi), an ancient and celebrated tribe in the north-east of Bithynia, between the rivers Sangarius and Billaeus, on the east of the tribe called Thyni or Bithyni. According to Scylax, they did not extend as far west as the Sangarius, for according to him the river Hypius formed the boundary between the Bithyni and Mariandyni. Strabo (vii. p. 295) expresses a belief that the Mariandyni were a branch of the Bithynians, a belief to which he was probably led by the resemblance between their names, and which cannot be well reconciled with the statement of Herodotus (iii. 90), who clearly distinguishes the Mariandyni from the Thracians or Thyni in Asia. In the Persian army, also, they appear quite separated from the Bithyni, and their armour resembles that of the Paphlagonians, which was quite different from that of the Bithyni.
In the book “The Deipnosophists, or, Banquet of the learned of Athenaeus, Volume 3 “By Athenaeus (of Naucratis.), Charles Duke Yonge also mentions Mariandyni tribe.
“Will you not bring me here some black dried figs?
Don’t understand? Among the Mariandyni,
that barbarous tribe, they call these black dried figs
Mariandinos (Mariandyni) was a Thracian town of Bittynia between the rivers Sangarios and Billaeus, to the east of the tinios or bitinios. Segúns Scylax the Hypius river was the one that formed the limit between bitinios and mariandinos. . Both towns comprised of III satrapía Persian and the country was Mariandinia call Mariandynia.
In previous posts we checked facts about Sea of Marmara as well as Marmara Region of even present day Turkastan.
After Mariandyni tribe now let us look at Kaukauni tribes settled in Anatolia .
Caucauni and Heneti tribe
Cauconians or Kaukani or Cauconiatae is the name of an ancient tribe in Anatolia mentioned by Strabo.By his time he writes that they were extinct. Strabo says that “As for the Cauconians, who, according to report, took up their abode on the seacoast next to the Mariandyni and extended as far as the Parthenius River, with Tieium as their city, some say that they were Scythians, others that they were a certain people of the Macedonians, and others that they were a certain people of the Pelasgians. “the Cauconians were led by the noble son of Polycles— they who lived in glorious dwellings in the neighborhood of the Parthenius River, ”for, he adds, the Cauconians extended from Heracleia and the Mariandyni to the white Syrians, whom we call Cappadocians, and the tribe of the Cauconians round Tieium extended to the Parthenius River, whereas that of the Heneti, who held Cytorum, were situated next to them after the Parthenius River, and still today certain “Cauconitae” live in the neighborhood of the Parthenius River.”
The above facts reveals that Indian Mariandyni, Kaukani and Heneti tribes reached Anatolia at the time of crisis.. Strabo also gives us detailed information about these tribes.
The word Konkani derives from kum, meaning ‘Mother Earth’ and kana, meaning ‘piece/part’ thereby meaning a strip of land along the western Indian coast beyond the Western Ghat mountains called as Konkan. The language they speak as well as the people itself take the name from the region where it originated.
Link to more facts
Mariandyni and Bythians
Strabo in the book “The geography of Strabo, Volume 2” mentions that“There is not ,however, the same argument among writers with regard to Mariandyni and Caucones.For they say that Heracleia is situated among Mariandyni, and was founded by Milesians. But who they are or where they come from , nothing is said. There is no
diffrence in language ,nor any other apperant national distinction beetween them and the Bythians, whom they resembles in all respect. It is probable therefore the Mariandyni were thracian tribe.
Theopompus says that Mariandynies who governed the part of Paphlagonia, which was subject to many Masters,invaded and and obtained possession of the Bebryces , and then he gave his own name to the territorry which he had before occupied.
The Caucones who according to history inhabitates line of sea cost which extends from the Mariandyni as far as Perthenius , and to whom belongs the city Tieium and said by some writters to be Scythians , by others a tribe of Macedonia, and by others the tribe of Pelasgi.”.(p- 287)
Strabo also mentions Thracians (Bythynia), Pontus, Chalcedon Cappadocians, Galatians in his book. In fact these all people assembled for cause of Bharatvarsh . Without knowing them one canot recognise the true First blood of India.
There is reason to believe that they all had their Origin in Bharatvarsh .
History of Anatolia tells the story about how First blood of Bharatvarsh gears up after Invasion by Alexander . The description also tells us the story of how other so called European tribes geared up for the cause. Tracians and Celtic tribes migrated from Gaul and Denube to Asia Minor and created colonies at very border of Macedonia. The Great Raid and its heroes are cule to their Indian Origin. Tracians and Celts migrated to Anatolia from europe,gave shalters to Immigrants tribes like Mariandian and Cocani and faught against Macedonia gives us proof of their Indian Origin. Means until that time Zone warrior clans of India as well as of Anatolia and Europe had bondages. They were ready to live and die for eachother.
Strabo mentions that “The brave son of Polycles led the Caucones,
Who inhabited the well-known dwellings about the river Parthenius,”p page 
Link to Coucani
Chalcedon and Heracleia (Chalykya and Haricula?)
Surprisingly we find Satkani Hala in India and Heracleia there.
Giving geographical description of Anatolia Strabo’s “Between Chalcedon (Clue to Chalykya)and Heracleia are several rivers, as the Psillis, the Calpas, and the Sangarius, of which last the poet makes mention. It has its source at the village Sangias, at the distance of 150 stadia from Pessinus. It flows through  the greater part of Phrygia Epictetus, and a part also of Bithynia, so that it is distant from Nicomedia a little more than 300 stadia, where the river Gallus unites with it. The latter river has its source at Modra in Phrygia on the Hellespont, which is’ the same country as the Epictetus, and was formerly occupied by the Bithynians.
further mentions that…
“Next is the river Parthenius, flowing through a country abounding with flowers; from these it obtained its name. Its source is in Paphlagonia. Then succeeded Paphlagonia, and the Heneti. It is a question what Heneti the poet means, when he says,
“the brave Pylamenes led the Paphlagonians out of the country of the Heneti, where they have a race of “wild mules;”
Zenodotus writes the verse in this manner, “From Heneta,” and says that it means the present Amisus.The Heneti were the most considerable tribe of the Paphlagonians; that Pylaemenes was descended from it; that a large body of this people accompanied him to the Trojan war; that when they had lost their leader they passed over to Thrace upon the capture of Troy and in the course of their wanderings arrived at the present Henetic territory.”
The Taurus Tribe -Sons of Turvasu?
Strabo also mentions The taurus tribe. He mentions that….“The boundary of the Paphlagonians to the east is the river Halys, which flows from the south between the Syrians and the Paphlagonians; and according to Herodotus, (who means Cappadocians, when he is speaking of Syrians,) discharges itself into the Euxine Sea. Even at present they are called Leuco-Syrians, (or White Syrians,) while those without the Taurus are called Syrians. In comparison with the people within the Taurus, the latter have a burnt complexion; but the former, not having it, received the appellation of Leuco- Syrians (or White Syrians).”
“ After the river Parthenius is Amastris, bearing the game name as the princess by whom it was founded. It is  situated upon a peninsula, with harbours on each side of the isthmus. Amastris was the wife of Dionysius, the tyrant of Heracleia, and daughter of Oxyathres, the brother of the Darius who fought against Alexander. She formed the settlement out of four cities, Sesamus, Cytorum, Cromna, (mentioned by Homer in his recital of the Paphlagonian .
Meanwhile Cramer, J. A. (John Anthony :1793-1848) aldo helps us to understand the course of History. In his book “Geographical and historical description of Asia Minor” he explains the origin of word Asia. He mentions that ,”As EARLY as the time of Herodotus we find the name of Asia employed to designate the vast continent situated to the east of Europe, and almost entirely subject at that period to the Persian dominion. The Greeks, as we learn from that historian, pretended that it was derived from Asia, the wife of Prometheus, but the Lydians, on the other hand, affirmed that its origin was to be sought for in their country. John Anthony also tells the story of great migration. He mentions that, “it will be seen at once that the descendants of Noah, after their dispersion in the plains of Mesopotamia, would, from their proximity to Asia Minor, have had time, not only to occupy its nearest provinces, but to spread over the whole country, before their more northern brethren could reach the Bosphorus by the slow and circuitous journey round the Palus Mseotis and the shores of the Euxine.” (p-15)
John Anthony also helps us to understand the different ally tribes like Thracian ,Mariandyni,Caucones,Pandion,The Amazons etc
Book link (“Geographical and historical description of Asia Minor”)
What Homer says
I have stated already, that according to the concurrent testimony of antiquity we must admit the European origin of several extensive tribes in Asia Minor. Of these, the earliest and most nu merous appear to have been the Phrygians, who, as we learn from Herodotus, on the authority of traditions preserved by the Macedonians, once dwelt in their country under the name of Bryges ; but having crossed into Asia at a period of which we cannot now form any accurate notion, they changed that appellation to the form under which it was ever after known.(p-19)
On such evidence it seems impossible to deny the fact of a migration of these Thracian Bryges into Asia at an uncertain epoch, but certainly prior to the Trojan war, since the Phrygians are clearly mentioned by Homer as a people of Asia Minor.
Amongst these must not be forgotten that of Homer, who brings together the Carians, Leleges, Pelasgi, and Caucones, people all apparently of Thracian origin, and of wandering habits. (II. K. 480.) Next in order to the Carians are the Lydians, or, as they are more anciently called, the Maeones (;p-21)
Link to Mariandyni
To the great Thracian family belong- also the Mariandyni, Bebryces, Doliones, Cavicones, and other early and obscure tribes, which once had a separate political existence on the shores of the Propontis and Euxine, but became merged afterwards in the general nomenclature of Mysians and Bithynians. (Strab. XII. p. 542.) P-23) ”
Second Link to Mariandyni
Pindar says that “the Amazons commanded a Syrian band, armed with spears with broad iron heads;”
The Amazons -Apsara – Abhisarika?
The Amazons (Greek: Amazónes) are a nation of all-female warriors in Classical and Greek mythology. Herodotus placed them in a region bordering Scythia in Sarmatia (modern territory of Ukraine). Other historiographers place them in Asia Minor, Libya, or India.
Notable queens of the Amazons are Penthesilea, who participated in the Trojan War, and her sister Hippolyte, whose magical girdle, given to her by her father Ares, was the object of one of the labours of Hercules. Amazonian raiders were often depicted in battle with Greek warriors in amazonomachies in classical art.
There are various accounts of Amazon raids in Asia Minor. From the Early Modern period, their name has become a term for woman warriors in general.
Link to Amazons
Amazons formed an independent kingdom under the government of a queen named Hippolyta or Hippolyte (“loose, unbridled mare”). Herodotus called them Androktones (“killers of men”), and he stated that in the Scythian language they were called Oiorpata, which he asserted had this meaning.”
In fact Combodian mythology and artwork can help us to understand the term Amezon female warriors. Indian ancient story of “Chitrangda and Arjun” also gives us clue.
Yes, in cambodian artwork one can find Apsara warrior having shield in her hand . The term “Oiorpata “ also gives clue in this direction.We can trace out similarity between “The Amezon” and ancient Indian “Apsara” culture .There was river Apsara in Anatolia. Shakuntla was also the daughter of Apsara Menaka.
Link to Amazons
Abhisarika – Apsara culture
A book “Aphsuaa” By George B. Hewitt is clue to Abhisarika (Apsara culture.)George B. Hewitt mentions that, “ This lost hypothesis finds some justification in the topohymns of both ancient Anatolia and western and south-western Georgia ,which might contain traces of an Abkaazo-Adyghean presence. The oldest name of the river “Chorokh” in Ajaria (south west Georgia) and north-eastern Turkey, namely “Apsara”, earlier called “Akampsis”, and the name of the city “Apsarous” in Byzantine Lazica.
Book link (Aphsuaa)
They still remember their Warrior ally “Abhisarika “ or “ Amezons” and named a province in America. Still they respect Abhisarika culture. It is clue to ancient culture of Bharatvarsha. Even Arjuna took help of Apsara warriors during his carrier as warrior. How can we forget Chitrangada?
The Chaldoi – Chola or Chalukya?
The Chalybes or Chaldoi were a tribe of Classical Antiquity credited with the invention of ferrous metallurgy.
They settled in north Anatolia known as Chaldia near the shores of the Black Sea, from the Halys to Pharnakeia and Trabzon in the east and as far south as Eastern Anatolia.
The main sources for the history of the Chaldoi are accounts from classical authors, including Homer, Strabo, and Xenophon. The Chaldoi/Chalybes, Mossynoikoi, and Tubal/Tabal/Tibareni, are counted among the first ironsmith nations by classical authors. In Roman times, the Chaldaei (homonymous but unrelated to the Semitic Chaldeans) and Chalybes are mentioned by Plutarch
(Lucull. c. 14) as settling in Pontic Cappadocia, or the Pontus Cappadocicus section of the Roman province of Pontus.
, the tribe’s name in Greek, means “tempered iron, steel”, a term that passed into Latin as chalybs, “steel”. Sayce derived the Greek name Chalybe from Hittite Khaly-wa, “land of Halys”.
In the book “WORLD VEDIC HERITAGE A HISTORY OF HISTORIES ( Volume II )”, P. N. OAK , the founder President Institute For Rewriting World History speculate Chaolas culture precence in europe. He mentions that, “
like a broken sentence with missing words, scattered bits of evidence indicate that a Sanskrit-speaking Chola dynasty ruled the world (or a very large part of It) In the post-Mahabharat era. In Dm But fin Malaysia) we have Kuala Lumpur which derives a name from the Cholas (as exploined earlier). In the British lain is Cholomondeley, also commemorating the away of the Choles. Sno “Ch” Is pronounced as “K” and also bj ‘Kh’ It should br apiMirrnl that the Kelt s and Kholdeans alias Chaldeans also signify Choldltm and CholUc people I, e. those of the Chola kingdom. The Chola. a Sanskrit -speaking Indian dynasty of known ancient history seems lo bo a luler sprout or remnant of on earlier Chola dynasty which h«ld worldwide sway.” (page – 737)
Link to the P.N.Oak’s Book
Their Allies from so called European land
After looking at the story of migrated Indian tribes, now let us look at their ally tribes, migrated from gaul and Danube to help in the time of crisis. To begin with let us look at the facts , what citizens of Heracleia did for the neighbouring Mariandynis.
George Grote mentions in his book “History of Greece, Volume 9” that ,”The citizens of Heracleia had reduced in to dependence considerable portion of the neighbouring Mariandynis , and held them in relation resembling that of the natives of Esthonia and Livonia to the German colonies in the Baltic.”(p- 165)
Yes, their first ally was the kingdom of Bithynia. Bithynia took leadership of Great Raid and it is clue to present day Britain.
Nigel Guy Wilson in his book “Encyclopedia of ancient Greece” says that, “Bithynia , the Region of northwest Asia Minor
Bordering the sea of Marmara,the straits of Bosporus, and the southern Shores of the Black sea,and situated opposite Constantinople (Istanbul),Bithynia is today part of Turky , and welknown for its Byzantine fortifications and churches. Though mountainous and densely forested ,it was one of the most prosporous region of Asia Minor.It was blessed with fine harbours,fertile valleys,and suplies of marble.As a corridor between Europe and inner Anatolia ,Bithynia was situated in a strategic yet vulnerable position between east and west.”
“Bithynia was named after the Bithyni, one of the warlike indo-European tribes that had immigrated from Thrace during the latter part of second mellanioum B.c. In 560 B.C. the land was conquered by the king of Lydia ,but it fell under the hands of Persians when they latter coquered Lydia four years latter. It was occupied by Alexander the Great in 334 B.C. But Bithynians regained their indipendence under leadership of Zipoetes in the early third century B.C. His son Nicomedes 1 established the first dynasty of Bithynian kings and ruled from 278 to 250 B.C. He founded Nicomedia (modern Izmit) and made it his capital.”
Link to Book (“Encyclopedia of ancient Greece)
Nicomedes invited into Anatolia the warlike celts who were subsequently setteled in Galatia. This led to turbulent conditon in the land for many years thereafter. These kings founded cities and promoted Greek culture. Its notable rulers were Prusias 1( 237 -192 B.C.), Prusias 2 ( 192 -148 B.C.),Nicomedes 2 ( 142 – 91 B.C.),Nicomedes 3 ( 91-74 B.C.). The last mentioned was close ally of Romans , and on his death he bequearthed his kingdom to Rome.
Link to Bythinia
Bithynia and Constantine
Bithynia was home of some well-known scientists and writters, such as Hipparchus of Nicaca and Arrian of Nicomedia. It was also the temporary residence of the Latin author Catullus and Suctonius,as well as the younger Pliny. Helena the mother of Emperor Constantine , came from Bythia.The Octophorus or eightman litter,was particulajly assotiated with the Bithynian Kings.
Link to Bithynia
Here we have to remember that Constantine was the first Roman king who adopted Christianity. They might have lost the hope that Hindutva will come back in Bhratvarsha again.
Celts in Britain
Charles Arnold-Baker also gives historical facts about Celts. In his book “The companion to British history”Charles mentions that ,”Romans and Greek writers used word celt for several interrelated tribes inhabiting Transalpine Europe and Peninsula (Galetia) . They or their aristocracy were tall , strong and blonde. They invaded Italy in 400 B.C. and settled Po valley, thereafter called Cisalpine Gaul. They sacked Delphi in 297 B.C. and colonised northern Asia Minor (Galatia) in 276 B.c. Early in the 1st centu. B.c. teutonic pressure drove many across Rhyne; there was extensive migration to Britain, which by Caeser’s time was a Celtic spesking country with , in some parts , local branches of the Celtic tribes.”( p-260)
“Celtic Britain” the book by Lloyd Robert Laing narrates the story of Celtic miggration in Asia Minor.
Book mentions that , “During the 4 th century B.c. celts raided the carpathians. Alexander the Great recieved envoys from the celts of the Danube -and soon after raids were reported in Bulgaria and Macedonia.The celts were unbeatable in Balkans. In 297 B.c. they devastated Macedonia , which only half a century previously had been the hub of the greatest Empire the ancient world had known,and under Akishorius and another Brennus penetrated Tessaly. At Thermopylae they mat the Athenians just as the Persians had done over two centuries before.Their advance was not halted, and the warlike “Volcae Tectosages” pillaged Delphi, the sacred shrine of Apollo and Pythoness.
Celts now hired themselves out as mercenaries to any to hellenistic princeling who could afford their price. Celtic soldiers became common place in Greek armies. King Nikomedes of Bythinia ( now in Turkey) invited 20000 celts into Asia Minor, but the plan get awry, for these celts imposed a rule of terror on the Greek cities.In 270 B.c. celts were given territory near Ankara. This became the kingdom of Galatia (note : the name is similar to Galatia of spain)
Celtic terrorism in the eastern Mediterranean came to an end around 244 B.c.,when they were defeated first by Antigonas Gonatas in Macedon and then by Attalos of Pergamon in Turkey.”(p- 7-8)
Link to Baker’s Book
Yes, Ankara became capital of Galatia.The city was then known as Ancyra. It is being said that though paganism was probably tottering in Ancyra in Clement’s day, it may still have been the majority religion. During the middle of the 4th century, Ancyra was involved in the complex theological disputes over the nature of Christ, and a form of Arianism seems to have originated there.
Now let us see what wikipedia says about Galatia.
Their second ally was celtic Galatia.An ancient country of central Asia Minor in the region surrounding modern Ankara, Turkey. Settled by Celtic tribes in the third century B.C., it became a Roman province in 25 B.C. They migrated from Europe at invitation of king of Bithynia.
“Ancient Galatia was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia in modern Turkey. Galatia was named for the immigrant Gauls from Thrace (cf. Tylis), who settled here and became its ruling caste in the 3rd century BC, following the Gallic invasion of the Balkans in 279 BC. It has been called the “Gallia” of the East, Roman writers calling its inhabitants “Galli” (“Gauls”).
The Galatians were in their origin a part of the great Celtic migration which invaded Macedon, led by Brennus. The original Celts who settled in Galatia came through Thrace under the leadership of Leotarios and Leonnorios circa 270 BC. Three tribes comprised these Celts, the Tectosages, the Trocmii, and the Tolistobogii.
The invaders came at the invitation of Nicomedes I of Bithynia, who required help in a dynastic struggle against his brother. Three tribes crossed over from Thrace to Asia Minor. They numbered about 10,000 fighting men and about the same number of women and children, divided into three tribes, Trocmi, Tolistobogii and Tectosages.
There is another Galatia in spain too. wikipedia mentions that “The name Galicia comes from the Latin name Gallaecia, associated with the name of the ancient Celtic tribe the Gallaeci or Callaeci .
Callaeci tribe or kalachuris?
The name Galicia comes from the Latin name Gallaecia, associated with the name of the ancient Celtic tribe that resided above the Douro river, the Gallaeci or Callaeci in Latin, and Kallaikói in Greek (as mentioned by Herodotus). Gallaic was the archaic Q-Celtic language spoken by Gallaeci of the Hallstatt culture.
The name has been related to the Celtic goddess Cailleach, so the ancient Galicians were described as “worshippers of Cailleach”.
Historians have pointed out that several Kalachuri kings were related to Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas by matrimonial alliances and had ruled from places like Tripuri, Gorakhpur, Ratnapur, Rajpur.Their emblem was Suvarna Vrishabha or the golden bull. (wikipedia)
Galatia and Kalachuri both had “Vrishbha” as their emblem.
Does it implies that Portugul- Spain(Iberia) was the land of Pandiyan and Kalachuris?
pronunciation: [ga’lija) is an autonomous community in northwest Spain, with the status of a historic nationality. It is constituted under the Galician Statute of Autonomy of 1981. Its component provinces are A Coruña, Lugo, Ourense and Pontevedra.
The Gallaeci or Callaeci were a Celtic people who inhabited Gallaecia, the region roughly corresponding to what is now Galicia, North of Portugal and Western Asturias, from the Iron Age and through the Roman period. They spoke a Q-Celtic language related to Celtiberian, usually called Northwestern Hispano-Celtic, and probably also Lusitanian or some other Indo-European languages.
Archaeologically, they were the descents of local Atlantic Bronze Age peoples (1300–700 BC). During the Iron Age they received several influences, from Central and Western Europe (Hallstatt and, to a lower extend, La Tène culture), and from the Mediterranean (Phoenicians and Carthaginians). The Gallaeci dwelt in hill forts (locally called castros), and the archaeological culture they developed is called “Castro culture” (Hill-forts culture). They were finally anexed by Caesar Augustus during the Cantabrian Wars, war which oppened a period of assimilation into a Gallaecian-Roman culture.
The Third ally of migrating Indian tribes were Pontus.
Pontus or Pandyan?
“Pontus or Pontos is a historical Greek designation for a region on the southern coast of the Black Sea, located in modern-day northeastern Turkey. The name was applied to the coastal region in antiquity by the Greeks who colonized the area, and derived from the Greek name of the Black Sea: Pontos Euxeinos (“Hospitable Sea”), or simply Pontos. Having originally no specific name, the region east of the river Halys was spoken of as the country en Pontôi, “on the Pontos”, and hence acquired the name of Pontus, which is first found in Xenophon’s Anabasis. The extent of the region varied through the ages, but generally it extended from the borders of Colchis (modern Georgia) until well into Paphlagonia in the west, with varying amounts of hinterland. Several states and provinces bearing the name of Pontus or variants thereof were established in the region in Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine times.” (Wikipedia)
B. C. McGing gives us some information about Pontus kingdom .In his book “The foreign policy of Mithridates VI Eupator, King of Pontus”. He says that. ““The Hellenistic Kingdom of Pontus which Mithridates Eupator inherited from the ancestors spanned much of the south coast of the black sea from Amastris in the west at least as far as Pharnaceia in the east. It was bounded inland by Armenia Minor in the east. Strabo gives its name as “Pontus” or Cappadocia on the Pontus, while its neighbour to the south was known as Cappadosia on the Taurus.”
Yes ,There was Pandiyan Dynasty in south India .The word Pandya is derived from the Tamil word “Pandi” meaning bull. Ancient Tamils, considered the bull as a sign of masculinity and valor. Pandya became the epithet of the first Pandyan king of Madurai, Kulasekharan Pandya as he was built like a bull. It was used as an epitome of masculinity. His son, the second king of Madurai, the legendary Malayadwaja Pandya who sided with the Pandavas and took part in the Kurukshetra is described as follows in Karna Parva.
“Although knowing that the shafts(arrows) of the high souled son of Drona employed in shooting were really inexhaustible, yet Pandya, that bull among men, cut them all into pieces”
One can look at the similarity between Pontus and Pandiyan kings of south India. There is logical support for this sort of presumption. Pandi means Bull in tamil tradition, and the tradition of bull -fighting has its roots in Pandian tradition. And tradition of Bull -fighting still prevails in Portugul and Spain. This tradition does not give us clue to understand the missing chapter of History?
Latter on celtis tribes migrated from Anatolia to Italy and established their kingdom there.Hallstatt and their La Tene Cultures of switzerland, Mediolanum (modern Milan) and Piedmont kingdom of ancient Italy tells us further story of migration.
Full text of “Pontus and Its Neighbours: The First Mithridatic War” , the book by S. A. COOK, and F. E. ADCOCK also Gives detailed accont of Pontus and its culture..
Book mentions that…“There is the eastern interior, which has for its home waters the landlocked Black Sea, once an Iranian, Scytho-Persian lake, and which looked to the East and lived the life of the neighbouring Oriental monarchies 1 . Of this part (which also included Armenia, Commagene, Galatia, Lycaonia and a part of Phrygia) Pontus or Pontic Cappadocia, the nucleus of the Mithridatic empire, and Great or Tauric Cappadocia form the western sector.
Even after Alexander, these Eastern-Anatolian fragments of the Persian empire remained closely connected with the East, with the Seleucid empire and also with that of Parthia, and absorbed very little Greek life and civilization.”
Book mentions that there was temple of “Ma” in Pontus.
Link to cook’s Book
The Taurians ( The sons of Tarvasu?)
Herodotus provided a brief description of the territory occupied by the Taurians tribe. In his words, this mountainous area projects into Pontos (Black Sea) and is located in between of Kerkinitis and Rocky Chersonesos, that is to say, if one uses modern toponyms, between the city of Yevpatoriya and Kerch peninsula.
here are few hypotheses for the origins of the ethnonym Taurians and toponym Taurica (as the Crimean peninsula was called in the Classical period), and none of them can be considered proven. For a long time, Mikhail Rostovtsev’s hypothesis was dominating, according to which Taurians was a Graecized form of some indigenous word with similar pronunciation. In other words, the Greeks heard how the Taurians called themselves. This word sounding reminded them their own, Greek word tauroi (literally “bulls”), and the population of the peninsula received their Greek name in this way.
Note– There was Taurus mountain, Origin of River Tigris and Ufratis as well as Troy (Truva) colony in Anatolia. It suggests the strong presense of Turvasu , The son of Yayati.
There is similarity between the words like -Taurus, Bull, Pandiyan and Pontus. The symbolic words reminds us of Pandian kingdom of South India .
In fact The history of Herodotus, Volume 2 By Herodotus tells us the true story of Affinities between all these tribes.Narrating contigents of the army of XerXes Herodotus mentions that ..
“ The Indians who wore Garments of cotton and had bows and arrows of cane pointed with iron were commanded by Pharnazathers the son of Artiabates. …The Parthians, Chorasmians, sogadians, Gandarians and Dadicae appeared in the same arms and clothings.”(p- 151)
Link to history of Herodotus
“ Eastern Ethopians (for two kinds serveed in the expedition) were stationed with Indians , and did not at all differ from the others in forms but in their language and in their hair.They were clothed in skins of lion and panthers.”(p-152)
“The Paphlagonians wore woven helmets, and carried small shields and large spears. On their foot they wore shoes after the manner of their country. The ligyes, Mitieni and the Mariandyni , with those Syrians who by the Persians are called Cappadocians marched into the same dress as Paphlagonians. ”(p-153)
“Thracians marched with their heads covered with a cap made of skin of Foxes and around thier bodies they wore tunics. They have gone under the name of Bythinians eversince they crossed over to Asia. These Asiatic Thracians were commanded by Bassaces the son of Artabanus.”(p-153)
“The Chalybes carried small bucklers composed of untanned hides, and each had two Javelins fit for hunting wolves, and a helmet of brass, having the ears and horns of the ox of the same metal. They have an oracle of Mars in their country.”(p-154)
“A classical dictionary: containing an account of the principal proper names” By Charles Anthon also says that, “Ligyes, the people of Asia , mentioned by Herodotus. Historian informs ud that the Ligyes , the Matieni, the Mariandyni and the Cappadocians had the same kind of arms, and that the Ligyes, Mariandyni and Cappadocians as forming part of the army of Xerxes , where under the same commander.”(p-744)
link to Charles Anthon’s Book
These were the migrated Indian teribes as well as their allies who migrated on European land previously. But we cannot finish here without mentioning graeat Warrior and Heroes of the campaign against Macedonia and Greece.
“Celtic Warrior: 300 BC-AD 100” also gives accont of fierce celtic warriors and their Wars. Author Stephen Allen mentions in the book that , “ It is known that Alexander the Great established friendly relations with celts in the Balkan before embarking upon his campaign in Asia, and that he recieved celtic delegation in Babylon after the defeat of the persians. What encouraged the celts to continue their mass migration into Macedonia in the early 3rd B.c. is uncertain .Possibly it was turmoil that followed the break up of Alexander’s empire.The Greek author Pausanias hints at this :
“It was that Brennus strongly urged campaign against Greece, enlarging on the weakness of the Greece at the time ,on the wealth of greek states and on the even greater wealth in the sanctuaries.”
Brennus won the arguments and led his army to plunder Delphi, the greatest of all the Greek sanctuaries. Shortly afterwards three celtic tribes crossed the Hellespont in to Asia Minor where they settled in the area around now what is now Ankara.”(p-6)
Book link (“Celtic Warrior: 300 BC-AD 100”)
Bolgios,Brennus ,the great warriors and “Volcae Tectosages”, the confederation of Celtic tribes are worth mentioning.Without paying elegy to these people the chapter will remain empty.
Although Celtic bands probably had penetrated into northern Italy from earlier times, the year 400 BC is generally accepted as the approximate date for the beginning of the great invasion of migrating Celtic tribes whose names Insubres, Boii, Senones, and Lingones were recorded by later Latin historians. Rome was sacked by Celts about 390, and raiding bands wandered about the whole peninsula and reached Sicily. The Celtic territory south of the Alps where they settled came to be known as Cisalpine Gaul (Gallia Cisalpina), and its warlike inhabitants remained an ever-constant menace to Rome until their defeat at Telamon in 225.Dates associated with the Celts in their movement into the Balkans are 335 BC, when Alexander the Great received delegations of Celts living near the Adriatic, and 279, when Celts sacked Delphi in Greece but suffered defeat at the hands of the Aetolians. In the following year, three Celtic tribes crossed the Bosporus into Anatolia and created widespread havoc. By 276 they had settled in parts of Phrygia but continued raiding and pillage until finally quelled by Attalus I of Pergamum about 230. In Italy, meanwhile, Rome had established supremacy over the whole of Cisalpine Gaul by 192 and, in 124, had conquered territory beyond the western Alps—in the provincia (Provence).
The Volcae were a tribal confederation constituted before the raid of combined Gauls that invaded Macedon in the 270s BCE and defeated the assembled Greeks at the Battle of Thermopylae in 279 BCE.
Harry Mountain narrates the story of their bravery in his book “The Celtic Encyclopedia, Volume 1”, Harry Mountain says that ,”Warriors of Volcae Tectosages from the old homeland were a part of Brennu’s army when they sacked Delphi in B.c. 279.Volcae Tectosages were also a part of the Celtic- Illyrian force that hired out to Nicomdes , king of Bithynia , in his fight against Anticochos the Seleucid.The celtic army was made up of 20000 male and female horse warriors. they were working for themselves until they were defeated in B.c. 270 by Antochos of Syria , who was using war elephants.”
Bolgios and Brennus
The identity of army and soldiers of Brennus and Bolgios who invaded Delphi and Macedonia should be researched in detail to understand “the first Blood “ Of Bharatvarsh.
Link to Facts
History narrates that,”Along with Bolgios ,Brennus (d. 279 BC)was the legendary leader of the Celts on thier invasion of Macedonia in the second century BCE. Though Bolgios led the invasion of Macedonia Brennus succeeded in crossing his whole army over the river Sperchios into Greece proper, where he laid seige to the town of Heraclea and, having driven out the garrison there, marched on to Thermopylae where he defeated an army raised by a confederation of Greek cities.
Brennus then avanced across Greece, where he decided to go on to Delphi, which was reported as the treasure house of Greece. Brennus and his army of 30,000 set off to attack the temple of Apollo, the ultimate goal of his expidition. Here it is said that Brennus was defeated by earthquakes and thunderbolts that reduced the soldiers to ashes; snow storms, showers of great stones, and “ancient heroes appearing from the heavens”. In the midst of this snowstorm, Brennos and his men were attacked near the Parnassus mountains. The Celts were soundly defeated and Brennos was mortally wounded. As he lay dying, he gave the order for all of the wounded to be killed, and all the booty to be burned, as the army would never make it home if they had to carry the wounded warriors and their plunder. After giving the order, Brennos drank some wine and then took his own life.”
Bolgios and Belgae
John T. Koch menttons in his book “Celtic culture: a historical encyclopedia, Volumes 1-5” that,Beli may derive from the old celtic name which is attested as both Bolgios and Belgius, and was borne by the chieftain who led the Gaul invasion of Macedonia in 280 -279 B.C. It is poddible that this great leader Bolgios/Belgius came to be regarded as the namesake and ancestor of the powerful British and Gaulish tribal group of the final pre -Roman period known as the Belgae ; hence the doctrine that Beli /Belgeos was the ancestors of tribal Dynasties in Britain. (p.200)
Book link (John t.Koch)
Stephen Allen in his book “Lords of battle: the world of the Celtic warrior” gave touchy and heartthrobbing description of war fought in leadership of Brennus against greek and Macedonia.Stephen Allen says that..
“ The Greek claim that the Sanctuary at the Delphi was saved from the depredation of the barbarians is disputed by other ancient authors, who believed that it had been plundered by the Celts before they were defeated….Despite serious loses , they resisted strongly until Brennus fell wounded.They retreated stubbornly , killing their wounded rather than leaving them to the mercy of the Greeks. The earth is said to have trembled again that night.Celtic losses amounted to over 25000 dead. In despreation Brennus took his own life.”(p-52)
Link to “Lords of battle: the world of the …
Porus –Puru –Prausi tribe from Pannonia
Brennus (or Brennos) (died 279 BC) was one of the leaders of the army of Gallic invasion of Balkans, defeated the assembled Greeks at Thermopylae, and is popularly reputed to have sacked and looted Delphi, although the ancient sources do not support this.
In 280 BC a great army, comprising about 85,000 warriors coming from Pannonia and split in three divisions, marched south in a great expedition to Masedonia and central Greece. The division led by Brennus and Acichorius moved against Pajonians.
Some writers suppose that Brennus and Acichorius are the same person, the former being only a title and the latter the real name. Variations on Brennus (including the Brennus who led the sack of Rome, and the Gaelic Brian, as in Brian Boru) are found throughout the Celtic world as the title for a king, or general.
The other two divisions were led by Cerethrius and by Bolgios, moving against the Thracians and Triballi, and against the Macedonians and Illyrians, respectively.
Brennus is said to have belonged to an otherwise unknown tribe called the Prausi. These Gauls had settled in Pannonia because of population increases in Gaul, and sought further conquests.
The Boii (Bhoja ?)and Volcae were two large Celtic confederacies who generally cooperated in their campaigns. Splinter groups moved south via two major routes: one following the Danube river, another eastward from Italy. According to legend, 300,000 Celts moved into Italy and Illyria. By the 3rd century, the native inhabitants of Pannonia were almost completely Celticized. La Tene finds are found widely in Pannonia, but finds westward beyond the Tisza river and south beyond the Saya are rather sparse.
Link to Brennus and his Prausi tribe
Link to Prausi tribe
second link to Prausi tribe
Link to word count = Sons of Mother Kunti
And the history procced further…..
Merovingian dynasty of France
The Merovingians (also Merovings) were a Salian Frankish dynasty that came to rule the Franks in a region (known as Francia in Latin) largely corresponding to ancient Gaul from the middle of the 5th century. Their politics involved frequent civil warfare among branches of the family. During the final century of the Merovingian rule, the dynasty was increasingly pushed into a ceremonial role. The Merovingian rule was ended March 752 when Pope Zachary formally deposed Childeric III.Zachary’s successor, Pope Stephen II, re-confirmed and crowned Pepin the Short in Childeric’s place in 754 beginning the Carolingian monarchy and early introduction of the Holy Roman Empire.
They were sometimes referred to as the “long-haired kings” (Latin reges criniti) by contemporaries, for their symbolically unshorn hair (traditionally the tribal leader of the Franks wore his hair long, as distinct from the Romans and the tonsured clergy). The term “Merovingian” comes from medieval Latin Merovingi or Merohingi (“sons of Merovech”), an alteration of an unattested Old West Low Franconian form, akin to their dynasty’s Old English name Merewiowing.
Clotaire’s son Dagobert I (died 639), who had sent troops to Spain and pagan Slavic territories in the east, is commonly seen as the last powerful Merovingian King.”
“In 1066, the Normans invaded and conquered England. There was much civil war and battles with other nations throughout the Middle Ages. The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state until the reign of Richard I who made it a vassal of the Holy Roman Empire in 1194. In 1212 during the reign of his brother John Lackland the Kingdom instead became a tribute-paying vassal of the Holy See until the 16th century when Henry VIII broke from the Catholic Church. During the Renaissance, England was ruled by the Tudors. England had conquered Wales in the 12th century and was then united with Scotland in the early 18th century to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. Following the Industrial Revolution, Great Britain ruled a worldwide Empire, the largest in the world. Following a process of decolonization in the 20th century the vast majority of the empire became independent; however, its cultural impact is widespread and deep in many countries of the present day.”
Beli (in the form Bolgios) was the titular deity of the Belgae tribe and his name survive today in Belgium (literally, ‘Land of he Bolgios’). As Beli Mawr (Beli the Breat), a god of death, he survives in Cymric (Welsh) myhology as the father of all the Welsh deities and the purported ancestor of all the greal Welsh lineages. Still you can not understand? A war hero Bolgios become their God. It is clue to Rama. In previous post we have seen that Bagula of Mayurgiri(Nasik) has conection with Balgae tribe. Invasion on Macedonia was that much important for their history. Secondly Bithynia never subdued to any power ,not even to Alexander. I have already mentioned that Cymric migrated from Sarswati river after Natural catastrophe , which dried up river Sarswati. They are clue to Ram.
“During the Christian Reconquista (Reconquering), the County of Portugal was settled, as part of the Kingdom of Galicia. With the establishment of the Kingdom recognized in 1143 and the stabilization of its borders by 1249, Portugal claims to be the oldest European nation-state. In the 15th and 16th centuries, as the result of maritime exploration, Portugal established a global empire that included possessions in Africa, Asia, Oceania and South America. In 1580, after a succession crisis it was united with Spain for a period called the Iberian Union; however in 1640 it re-established full independence during the Portuguese Restoration War that resulted in the establishment of a new dynasty and a return to the previous separation between the two empires.” ( wikipedia)
“ The year 1492 also marked the arrival in the New World of Christopher Columbus, during a voyage funded by Isabella. That same year, Spain’s Jews were ordered to convert to Catholicism or face expulsion from Spanish territories during the Spanish Inquisition. A few years later, following social disturbances, Muslims were also expelled under the same conditions.As Renaissance New Monarchs, Isabella and Ferdinand centralized royal power at the expense of local nobility, and the word España, whose root is the ancient name Hispania, began to be commonly used to designate the whole of the two kingdoms. With their wide-ranging political, legal, religious and military reforms, Spain emerged as the first world power.” (wikipedia)
Helvetia is the female national personification of Switzerland, officially Confœderatio Helvetica, the “Helvetic Confederation”.
The allegory is typically pictured in a flowing gown, with a spear and a shield emblazoned with the Swiss flag, and commonly with braided hair, commonly with a wreath as a symbol of confederation. The name is a derivation of the ethnonym Helvetii, the name of the Gaulish tribe inhabiting the Swiss Plateau prior to the Roman conquest.
The Helvetia figure first appears in 1672, in a play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach, as a symbol of unity of the Old Swiss Confederacy in the face of the denominational disputes initiated by the Swiss Reformation. Identification of the Swiss as “Helvetians” (Hélvetiens) becomes common in the 18th century, particularly in the French language, as in François-Joseph-Nicolas d’Alt de Tieffenthal’s very patriotic Histoire des Hélvetiens (1749–53) followed by Alexander Ludwig von Wattenwyl’s Histoire de la Confédération hélvetique (1754). Helvetia appears in patriotic and political artwork in the context of the construction of a national history and identity in the early 19th century, after the disintegration of the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, and she appears on official federal coins and stamps from the foundation of Switzerland as a federal state in 1848.
Aventicum was the largest town and capital of Roman Switzerland (Helvetia or Civitas Helvetiorum). Its remains are beside the modern town of Avenches.
The city was probably created ex nihilo in the early 1st century AD, as the capital of the recently conquered territory of the Helvetii, across the road that connected Italy to Britain, built under Claudius. Under the rule of Emperor Vespasian, who grew up there, Aventicum was raised to the status of a colonia in 72 AD, whereupon it entered its golden age. The town wall was 5.6 km (3.48 miles) long.
Avenches is built on the site of the Roman town Aventicum.
Avanti was an ancient Indian janapada (realm), roughly corresponded to the present day Malwa region. According to the Buddhist text, the Anguttara Nikaya, Avanti was one of the solasa mahajanapadas (sixteen great realms) of the 6th century BCE. The janapada was divided into two parts by the Vindhyas, the northern part had its capital at Ujjayini and the southern part had its centre at Mahishmati.
According to the Puranic accounts, the Haihayas were the earliest rulers of Avanti, who captured the region from the Nagas. Initially, they ruled from Mahishmati. Later the whole janapada was divided into two parts with the capitals at Mahishmati and Ujjayini. The Haihayas were a confederation of five clans, the Vitihotras, the Bhojas, the Avantis, the Tundikeras and the Sharyatas. Later, the Haihayas were better known by their dominant clan – the Vitihotras. Ripunjaya, the last Vitihotra ruler of Ujjayini was overthrown by his amatya (minister) Pulika, who placed his son, Pradyota on the throne
War hero Leonnorius
Leonnorius was one of the leaders of the Celts in their invasion of Masedonia and the adjoining countries. When the main body under Brennus marched southwards into Macedonia and Breece (279 BC), Leonnorius and Lutarius led a detachment, twenty-thousand strong, into Thrace, where they ravaged the country to the shores of the Hellespont, compelled the city of Byzantium to pay them tribute, and made themselves masters of Lycimachia. While Leonnorius was still before Byzantium, Nicomedes, king of Bithynia, being in want of support in his war with his brother and Antiochus, agreed to take him and his troops, as well as those of Lutarius, into his pay, and furnished them with the means of passing over into Asia (278 bc). They first assisted him against his rival brother, Zipoites II, in Bithynia; after which they made plundering excursions through various parts of Asia; and ultimately established themselves in the province, called thenceforth from the name of its conquerors, Galatia (region before known as part of Phrygia). No farther mention is made of either of the leaders after they had crossed into Asia.
The invaders came at the invitation of Nicomedes I of Bithynia, who required help in a dynastic struggle against his brother. Three tribes crossed over from Thrace to Asia Minor. They numbered about 10,000 fighting men and about the same number of women and children, divided into three tribes, Trocmi, Tolistodogi and Tectosages. They were eventually defeated by the Seleucid king Antiochus, in a battle where the Seleucid war elephants shocked the Celts. While the momentum of the invasion was broken, the Galatians were by no means exterminated.
More Links to Macedonia invasion
La tene or Dash Rajan culture?
Gallic groups, originating from the various La tene chiefdoms, began a south-eastern movement into the Balkan peninsula from the 4th century BC. Although Celtic settlements were concentrated in the western half of the Carpathian basin, there were notable incursions, and settlements, within the Balkan peninsula itself.
From their new bases in northernIllyria and Pannonia, the Gallic invasions climaxed in the early 3rd century BC, with the invasion of Greece. The 279BC invasion of Greece proper was preceded by a series of other military campaigns waged toward southern Balkans and against the Kingdom of Macedonia, favoured by the state of confusion ensuing from the intricated succession to Alexander. A part of the invasion crossed over to Anatolia and eventually settled in the area that came to be named after them, Galatia.
Great expedition of 279 BC
281 BCE marks the turning point of the Celtic military pressure southward in the Balkans, and towards Greece. The collapse of Lasimachus’ successor kingdom in Thrace opened the way for the migrationThe cause for this is explained by Pausanians as greed for loot, by Justin as a result of overpopulation, and by Memnon as the result of famine. According to Pausanians, an initial probing raid was led by a Cambaules which withdrew when they realized they were too few in numbers. In 280 BCE a great army, comprising about 85,000 warriors, coming from Pannonia and split into three divisions, marched South in a great expedition to Macedon and central Greece. 20,000 of those, headed by Cerethirus, moved against the Thracians and Triballi. Another division, led by Brennus and Acichorius moved against Pajonians while a third division, headed by Bolgios, aimed for Macedonians and Illyrians.
Some of the survivors of the Greek campaign, led by Comontoris (one of Brennus’ generals) settled in Tharce, founding a short-lived city-state named Tyle. Another group of Gauls, who split off from Brennus’ army in 281, were transported over to Asia Minor by Nicomedes I to help him defeat his brother and secure the throne of Bithynia. They eventually settled in the region that came to be named after them as Galatia. They were defeated by Antiochus I, and as a result, they were confined to barren highlands in the center of Anatolia.
Link to La Tene
Parallel Historical event in Bharatvarsha
Kalinga War (262-261 BC )
Kalinga War was a war fought between the Maurya Empire under Ashoka the Great and the state of Kalinga, a feudal republic located on the coast of the present-day indian state of Orrissa. The Kalinga war, the only major war Ashoka fought after his accession to throne, is one of the major battles in the history of India. Kalinga put up a stiff resistance, but they were no match for Ashoka’s brutal strength. The bloodshed of this war is said to have prompted Ashoka to adopt Buddhism. However, he retained Kalinga after its conquest and incorporated into the Maurya Empire..
Ashoka’s response to the Kalinga War is recorded in the Edicts of Ashoka. The Kalinga War prompted Ashoka, already a non-engaged Buddhist, to devote the rest of his life to Ahmisa (non-violence) and to Dharma-Vijaya (victory through Dharma). Following the conquest of Kalinga, Ashoka ended the military expansion of the empire, and led the empire through more than 40 years of relative peace, harmony and prosperity.
You read the following Link carefully. Rani Padmavati took leadership of Kalinga.
Link to Kalinga war
Historical Clue Tara Tarini
Tara Tarini Hill Shrine (Orrissa) says the story of Kalinga and its capital Sampa. Tara Tarini was Ishtdevi of Kalinga. According to available historical sources the fall of Kalingan Empire and its capital Sampa (Samapa) in the Kalinga war around 2300 years ago by Mauryan Emperor Ashoka, strengthened the grip of Buddhists in this part of India. The then Sampa capital of the Kalingan empire, was hardly 4 km away from Taratarini Hill Shrine. So, scholars believe that Tara Tarini might be the principal deity (Ista-Devi) of the mighty Kalinga Empire.
With Kaing war Hinduism collapsed in Bharatvarsha itself. Budhisam prevailed in India for long 1000 years. Only Graet Philosopher and Saint Shankaracharyaji revived Hinduisam in India in 9Th century .It was Darrk Age of Hindutva.
Adi Shankara (788 CE – 820 CE), also known as Sankara Bhagavatpadacharya and Adi Shakaracharya was an Indian Guru from Kalady of present day Kerala who consolidated the doctrine of Advaita -Vedanta. His teachings are based on the unity of the Atman and brahman— non-dual brahman, in which brahman is viewed as Nirgun brahman, brahman without attributes.
At the time of Adi Shankara’s life, Hinduism was increasing in influence in India at the expense of Budhism and Jainism. Hinduism was divided into innumerable sects, each quarreling with the others. The followers of Mimamsa and Sankhya philosophy were atheists, insomuch that they did not believe in God as a unified being. Adi Shankara, along with Madhvacharya and Ramanujacharya, was instrumental in the revival of Hinduism. These three teachers formed the doctrines that are followed by their respective sects even today.
Link to Shankracharyaji
You Look at European history . Until 1000 A.D. , Dark age also prevailed in europe.
Mysterious Kaling in Europe
For your kind information I found Kaling and Tara Tarini in Europe. It strengthen my belief of presence of Ramavanshis and Pandav vanshis in Europe.
Let us go for straight facts.
Tallinn – Kolyvan – “Taani-linn(a)”
Tallinn (Estonian) is Capital and largest city of Estonia (Estdevi?). It is situated on the northern coast of the country, on the banks of the Gulf of Finland, 80 km (50 mi) south of Helsinki, east of Stockhome and west of Saint Peersburg. Tallinn’s Old Town is in the list of Unesco World Heritage Sites. It is ranked as a Global city and has been listed among the top 10 digital cities in the world. The city was a European Capital of Culture for 2011, along with Turku, Finland.
The earliest names of Tallinn include Kolyvan known from East Slavic chronicles, the name possibly deriving from the Estonian mythical hero Kalev.
Up to the 13th century the Scandinavians and Henry of Livonia in his chronicle called the town Lindanisa: Lyndanisse in Danish, Lindanäs in Swedish, also mentioned as Ledenets in Old East Slavic. According to some theories the name derived from mythical Linda, the wife of Kalev and the mother of Kalevipoeg. who in an Estonian legend carried rocks to her husband’s grave that formed the Toompea hill.
The origin of the name “Tallinn(a)” is certain to be Estonian, although the original meaning of the name is debated. It is usually thought to be derived from “Taani-linn(a)” (meaning “Danish-castle/town”; )after the Danes built the castle in place of the Estonian stronghold at Lindanisse. However, it could also have come from “tali-linna” (“winter-castle/town”), or “talu-linna” (“house/farmstead-castle/town”). The element -linna, like Germanic – Burg and Slavic – Grad / Gorod, originally meant “fortress” but is used as a suffix in the formation of town names.
Link to Tallinn
Taara (variations of the name include Tooru, Tharapita and Tarapitha) is a god in Estonian mythology.
The Chronicle of Livonia mentions Tharapita as the superior god of Oeselians (inhabitants of Saaremaa island), also well known to Vironian tribes in northern Estonia. According to the chronicle, when the crusaders invaded Vironia in 1220, there was a beautiful wooded hill in Vironia, where locals believe Oeselian god Tharapita was born and from which he flew to Saaremaa. The hill is believed to be the Ebavere Hill (Ebavere mägi) in modern Lanne –Viru county.
Taara was known by the Tavastian tribe of Finland. At an old cult place now known as Laurin Lähde (Lauri’s Fountain) in the county of Janakkala, Tavastians (Believers of Goddess Tara ?)worshipped Taara there as late as the 18th century and the church had to close the place.
Tharapita may have been known among the Slavs of the island of Rugen (Rushikulya?), where Danish crusaders destroyed a pagan idol named Turupit in 1168.
Link to Tharapith
For further detail pl look into photo gallery section of this website
Means warrior band from Kalinga also part of Great Raid on Mecadonia and Greece? Otherwise How Taratarini ,Rushikulya and Kalinga remembered in Europe ? This facts make the event more pathetic. I am not sure but I read Kalinga in Finnish epic poem “Kalevala”.Epic lament for “Sampo- The world Pillar “
Sampo : The world Pillar
The Sampo is a pivotal element of the plot of the Finnish epic poem Kalevala, compiled in 1835 (and expanded in 1849) by Elias Lonnort based on earlier Finnish Oral tradition.
In the expanded second version of the poem, the Sampo is forged by IIMairnen, a legendary smith, as a task set by the Mistress of Pohjola in return for her daughter’s hand.
n 1959 the joint Soviet-Finnish Film production Sampo (titled The Day the Earth Froze when released in the United States) adapted the Kalevala to the big screen. Directed by Risto Ojko and Aleksandr Ptushko, and written by Vaino Kaukonen and Viktor Vitkovich, the movie somewhat alters the circumstances surrounding the Sampo’s creation; Louhi kidnaps Ilmarinen’s sister Annikki to compel him to build a Sampo for her. However, the movie remains reasonably true to the original tale in broad outline, and the Sampo’s fate is the same.
Link to Sampo
Read above site that says history of our Kalinga. Sampa was capital of Kainga..near Tara Tarini in Orissa..(Ural?)
Listen to their lamenting voice
Even today cry for Sampo prevail there . Listen to their Lamanting epic “ Kalevala”.
A book named “Kalevala mythology”
By Juha Pentikäinen (p32) narrates that lamenting voice. Feel their lamenting voice before the voice freeze completelly in snow.
Link to Book
Researchers should research in this direction and dig further. But I want to give you hint. I found Tavastian (Tara pujak)Vironian tribes in Finland .I also found Viron tribes In Capisa .The tribe fought for Thousand years at Gate way of India . Viron tribe of Capisa was follower of vedic rituals .We shall check facts in coming chapter “Capisa” .
Link to Translated version of Epic Kalevala
( At the end of research we found that Garhwal – Gwydel – Gaul and Galatia are synonym words.)
At the end of research
Thracian / Tharu /Thai
Now we know “Thracian” of Bithynia look leadership of war against Macedonia. Without understanding Thracian tribes in wider historiacl perspective we can not understand Ram.
Link to Thracians history
Link to Thracian Bithynia
European History says that Thracians belong to Indo – European Group . After long research History of Deutschland (Germany) connects with Devbhumi and History of Gaul connects with Garhwal. European history also says that todays Britain is outcome of ancient Bythinia. So naturally Thracian history remind us of Tharu people of Uttarakhand.
Now read about Tharu people of ancient Uttarakhand
Link to Tharu people of Devbhumi
Link to Tharuvati Holi
MOre facts of Nepali Tharu
With above facts hsitory of Ayuthaya of Thailand ( Thai people) and History of Lau nandan (London) connected. Tharu people of Devbhumi connects history. Means Golu Devata reached far west and Sam devta of Uttarakhand reached up to ancient Siam (Present Thailand).
Link to Thar Parkar desert says the story of Drying up of Sarswati river. The event is clue to largescale migration from ancient India.
Link for More facts for Tharu people
Yes there are two streams of Tharu tribe. One Indian Look and second Nepali Look….Mystry should be resolved.
Then I have found further facts
Anarta / Anatolia / Atlantic
We have found lost Atlantis (Anarta )
At the end of research we find that Anatolia was carrying history of ancient Anarta kingdom of Bharatvarsha. That Shryati founded in present day Gujarat. capital city of Anarta was Kushasttali. Kushasthali ..capital of Anarta..was beneath ocean. Now is clear Atlantis..the lost Island in ocean was Anarta kingdom founded by Sharyati..son of Ikshvaku in present land of Gujarat. Shri Krishna reached Anarta from Mathura and build Dwarka on Kushsthali. Now we find that original root word of Crete was Kursawar or Kussattar. .Shryati happened to be prior to Ram and river Saryu was named after Sharyati. Pl read The detail I mention in the chapter 7(1)
lINK TO THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH ON KUSHSTHALI
lINK TO THE BOOK OF HELENE PETROVNA BLAVATSKY ( I WANT TO REMIND YOU THAT HELENE CARRY HISTORY OF HALAR THAT NOBODY UNDERSTAND..SHE HAS (NOT SOMETHING BUT EVERYTHING) TO DO WITH KRISHNA AND PURTICULARLY WITH BALDEVA DIRECTLY)READ PAGE- 259)
Kakudmi Still Live and Rule
Kakudmi (sometimes also called Kakudmin, or Raivata, son of Revata) was the King of Kusasthali, a kingdom beneath the ocean. He was the father of Revati, who married Balrama. Within Hinduism, his account is given within a number of Puranic texts such as the Mah?bh?rata, the Devi Bhagavatam and the Bhagvata Purana.
Link to Kakudmi lastsunline ruler of Anarta
You search out deeply…Kakudmi dynasty still rule in the heart of people. ya go deeper into the history of Cognomen and you will find Kukudmi there.
Link to Cognomen..the clan which rule vetican
Now if we find all these indian Royals in Anatolia..then it is not matter of Surprise.they were carrying their traditions only.
PL READ DETAILS IN CHAPTER – 7(1) of Book section
Balond Badri / Bolgios
I want remind you that king of Uttarakhand are called “Balond Badri “….Chalta Badri..!(p- 102). The book link will say you tradition of Balond Badri. Then read about Bolgios ,who took leadership of war against Macedonia…They did not came back from war ground of Europe because we became Baudh and forget Ram. Bolgios then entered Britain and named Lav nandan (London)and river Tamas (Thames)…on bank of river Tamas Lav -kush bormed in Valmiki ashram.
Book link to “Encyclopedia of Shavisam”that will say you about Balond Badri.
Link to Galia Belgica (Garhwal of Balond Badri) ,will say you further story of Chalta Badri.
Link to Bolgios , who took leadership of war against Mavedonia.
Brennus : Andhra vishnu
Means Bolgios who took leadrrship in war against Against Macedonia..has connction with Balond Badri..Chalta badri….while Brennus who lost his life in war of Delfi..belong to Andhra vishnu ? It is not presumption…but research in this direction should be carried further. I appeal to historians to carry research in this direction…Sanatan religion need research.
NOw I understand what Neitzsche’s madman says..
Neitzsche’s madman Lit a lantern in bright morning hours,ran to the market place and cried incessantly…~” I sick God..I sick God..”. He provoked laghter among people. The madman jumped into their midst and pierced them with their eyes. “You ask me where is God? I will tell you. We have Killed him – you and I .All of us his murderer.”
Link to Neitzsche’s Madman ( Pl read name of site…it is fourdham uni..(forget chardham dear?)