Pala in Anatolia as well as In India
Pragjyotisa / Phrygia / Paharpur / Paphlagonia
We find Pragjyotisa in ancient India (present Assam) , while Phrygia in Anatolia. We can trace out Pala dynasty presence in both the kingdoms.Gordium was Capital city of Phrygia while Gaor was capital city of Palas in India. The facts again put me in Dilema. Shoud I begin with Pragjyotisha or Phrygia? If I begin with Phrygia (Anatolia) then you will feel it very remote. So let us begin with Pragjyotisha (Assam).
Pragjyotisha was a mythological kingdom first mentioned in the Hindu epics and later Hindu literature. According to later versions of the epic, King Bhagadatta ruled the kingdom during the time of the Kurukshetra war where he met his death. In historical times, it came to be named as the Kamrupa Kingdom. Much of the mythical kingdom is culled from the 10th century Kalika purana and the later Yogini Tantra. The kingdom roughly falls in modern-day Assam in India.
Link to Pragjyotisha
Kamarupa was previously called Pragjyotisha, was the first historical kingdom in Assam that existed between 350 and 1140 CE i.e for almost 800 years. Ruled by three dynasties from their capitals in present-day Guwahati and Tezpur, it covered the entire Brahmputra river valley and, at times, North Bengal and parts of Bangladesh. The region is mentioned as Pragjyotisha in the Mahabharata and the Ramayana. The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (1st century) and Ptolemy’s Geographia (2nd century) calls the region Kirrhadia after the Kirata population.
After the death of Tyagasimha without an heir, a member of the Bhauma family, Brahmapala (900-920), was elected as king by the ruling chieftains, just as Gopala of the Pala dynasty of Bengal was elected. The original capital of this dynasty was Hadapeshvara, and was shifted to Durjaya built by Ratnapala, near modern Guwahati. The greatest of the Pala kings, Dharmapala had his capital at Kamarupanagara, now identified with North Guwahati. The last Pala king was Jayapala (1075-1100). Around this time, Kamarupa was attacked and the western portion was conquered by the Pala king of Gaur Ramapala.
The Following link to the book “Encyclopedia of North-East India
By Col Ved Prakash “(P- 145) will say you story of History Pala dynasty rule in North –East India
Pala presence in Anatolia
The Indo-European migrations, which took place over a vast territory extending from Western Europe to India, brought some peoples over the Caucasus into Anatolia. The Nesi people settled in Central Anatolia, the Pala in Paphlygonia, and the Luwians in Southern Anatolia.
In the course of these migrations the new arrivals gradually captured the Hatti princedoms to form first the Old Hittite Kingdom (1660-1460 B.C.), and than the Great Hittite Kingdom(1460-1190 B.C.).
Palaic is an extinct Indo -European language, attested in Cuniform tablets in Bronze Age Hattusa, the capital of the Hittites. Its name in Hittite is palaumnili, or “of the people of Pala”; Pala was probably to the northwest of the Hittite core area, so in the northwest of present mainland Turkey. That region was overrun by the Kaskas (Khas or Kirata?) in the 15th century BC, and the language likely went out of daily use at that time.
History of Anatolia says that Paphlygonia (Of Pala) was separated from Prygia. Secondly the following links also gives evidences of Pala presence in Anatolia.. Go through this link and then go for Phrygia and Paphlagonia. If possible read history of Pala dynasty of Hindustan. Yes first you have to know about Pala dynasty of India. That information will help you to historical connection.
In antiquity, Phrygia was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now modern-day Turky, centered around the Sakarya River.
The Phrygians are most famous for their legendary kings of the Heroic age of Greek mythology: Gordias whose Gordian Knot would later be untied by Alexander the Great, Midas who turned whatever he touched to gold, and Mygdon who warred with the Amazons (Warrior band of women). According to Homer’s Iliad, the Phrygians were close allies of the Trojans and participants in the Trojan war against the Greeks. Phrygian power reached its zenith in the late 8th century BC under another, historical King Midas, who dominated most of western and central Anatolia and rivaled Assyria and Urartu for power in eastern Anatolia. This later Midas was however also the last independent king of Phrygia before its capital Gordium was sacked by Cimmerians around 695 BC. Phrygia then became subject to Lydia, and then successively to Persia, Alexander and his Hellenistic successors, Pergamon, Rome and ByZantium. Phrygians were gradually assimilated into other cultures by the early medieval era, and the name Phrygia passed out of usage as a territorial designation after the Turkish conquest of Anatolia.
King Priam married a Phrygian princess, Hecuba, and maintained a close alliance with the Phrygians, who repaid him by fighting “ardently” in the Trojan War against the Greeks.
Paphlagonia was an ancient area on the Black Sea coast of north central Anatolia, situated between Bithynia to the west and Pontus to the east, and separated from Phrygia (later, Galatia) by a prolongation to the east of the Bithynian Olympus. According to Strabo, the river Parthenius formed the western limit of the region, and it was bounded on the east by the Halys river.
Gordium – capital of Phrygia
Gordium (Greek: Górdion; Turkish: Gordiyon) was the Capital city of ancient Phrygia. It was located at the site of modern Yassihuyuk, about 70–80 km southwest of Ankara (capital of Turkey), in the immediate vicinity of Polati district. The site was excavated by Gustav and Alfred Körte in 1900 and then by the University of Pennsylvania Museum, under the direction of Rodney S. Young, between 1950 and 1973. Excavations have continued at the site under the auspices of the University of Pennsylvania Museum with an international team.
Gordium lies where the ancient road between Lydia and Assyria/ Babylonia crossed the Sangarius river.
In the twelfth century BCE, Gordium was settled by Thracians who had migrated from South eastern Europe. During the ninth and eighth centuries (BC), the city grew into the capital of a Kingdom that controlled much of Asia Minor west of the river Halys. According to the Greek historian Herodotus, King Midas was the first foreigner to make an offering at the sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi, dedicating the throne from which he gave judgment During his reign, according to Strabo, the nomadic Cimmerians (People from river Sarswati?) invaded Asia Minor, and in 710/709, Midas was forced to ask for help from the Assyrian king Sargon II. In Strabo’s account, King Midas committed suicide by drinking bull’s blood when the Cimmerians overran the city. There is ample evidence of widespread burning of the city mound of Gordium, in a level referred to by Young as the destruction level.
Famous Gordian Knot
The Gordian Knot is a legend of Phrygian Gordium associated with Alexander the Great. It is often used as a metaphor for an intractable problem solved by a bold stroke (“cutting the Gordian knot”):
Alexander’s “brutal cutting of the knot… ended an ancient dispensation.” The ox-cart suggests a longer voyage, rather than a local journey, perhaps linking Gordias/Midas with an attested origin-myth in Macedon, of which Alexander is most likely to have been aware.
The following link the book “Anatolian historical phonology
By Harold Craig Melchert”( p-10) will also say history of Pala presence in Anatoia.
Kaskan displaced Pala
Living on the south coast of the Black Sea, to the north of the Hittites, the Bronze Age Kaskans (or Gasga) were in existence as a recognisable people by the eighteenth century BC, although they never formed a unified state. Instead, they may have moved into territory which had been abandoned by the former inhabitants of Zalpa. From the fifteenth century BC onwards, they continually threatened their immediate neighbours to the south, the Hitties, attacking and sometimes sacking the Hittite capital at Hattusa. In return the Hittites portrayed them as aggressive and wild tribesmen and continually campaigned against them.
The Kaska, probably originating from the eastern shore of the Propontis, may have displaced the speakers of the Palaic language from their home in Pala.
The Indo -european Kaskans were generally pig farmers and linen weavers while they weren’t fighting. Their neighbours to the west were the Pala, whom they may have displaced. The Pala were replaced (or absorbed) by the Phrygians in the late thirteenth century BC. The Georgian kingdom of Colchis lay to the east.
Decaying from late in the thirteenth century BC, the Hittite empire, and probably Tarhuntassa, are looted and destroyed by various surrounding peoples, including the Kaskans and Sea peoples. The Kaskans themselves now disappear from the historical record and Luwian-speaking Paphlagonia emerges in the western half of the territory, with the Halizones perhaps being one of the many groups in that region.
Link to Kaskan
The Links to following Books will tell you further story of Pala and Palaic language presence in Anatolia
(1) The Trojans and their neighbours
By Trevor Bryce Kingdom of Priam
(2) Essays on ancient Anatolia
By Prince Mikasa no Miya Takahito (son of Taish?, Emperor of Japan)
Look here … Emperor of Japan write book on Anatolia . The history of Anatolia is that much precious.
(3) The Cambridge Ancient History
By I. E. S. Edwards (p-142)
(4) Anatolian historical phonology
By Harold Craig Melchert (p-10)
(5) Indo-European language and culture: an introduction (p-171)
By Benjamin W. Fortson
(6)Troy and the Trojan War: a symposium held at Bryn Mawr College, October 1984 By John Lawrence Angel, Machteld Johanna Mellink
Now Pala (Lord of Gauda)Empire of India
The Pala Empire was an Indian imperial power, during the classical period of India, that existed from 750–1174 CE. It was ruled by a Buddhist dynasty from Bengal in the eastern region of the Indian subcontinent, all the rulers bearing names ending with the suffix Pala which means protector. The Palas were often described by opponents as the Lords of Gauda.
The empire reached its peak under Dharmapal and Devapala.
Dharmapala extended the empire into the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent. This triggered once again the power struggle for the control of the subcontinent. Devapala, successor of Dharmapala, expanded the empire to cover much of South Asia and beyond. His empire stretched from Assam and Utkala in the east, Kamboja (modern day Afghanistan) in the north-west and Deccan in the south. According to a Pala copperplate inscription Devapala exterminated the Utkalas, conquered the Pragjyotisha (Assam), shattered the pride of the HUna, and humbled the lords of Pratiharas, Gurjara and the Dravidas.
Palas came in contact with distant lands through their conquests and trades. The Sailendra Empire of Java,Sumatra and Malaya was a colony of the Palas. Devapala granted five villages at the request of the Sailendra king Balputradeva of Java for the upkeeping of the Mathas established at Nalanda for the scholars of that country. The Prime minister of the Balputradeva Kumar Ghosha was from Gauda. Palas maintained diplomatic and religious relation with Tibet. During the military expeditions of the Pala kings the Pala generals would establish kingdoms of their own in Punjab and Afghanistan. Recent discoveries in the Punjab hills showed the influence of the Pala Dynasty. There is a strong and continuous tradition that the ruling families in certain states are descended from the “Rajas of Gaur in Bengal”. These states are Suket, Keonthal, Kashtwar and Mandi. Of Kashtwar it is related that Kahan Pal — the founder of the state — with a small band of followers arrived in the hills in order to conquer a kingdom for himself. He is said to have come from Gaur, the ancient capital of Bengal and to have been a cadet of the ruling family of the place. The demise of the Turkshahi rule in Gandhar and the rise of the Hindushhi dynasty in that region might have connection to the invasion of the Palas in that region.
Gopala and Gaur
Gopala was the first ruler from the dynasty. He came to power in 750 in Gaur by a Democratic election. This event is recognized as one of the first democratic elections in south asia since the time of the Maha Janpadas. He reigned from 750–770 and consolidated his position by extending his control over all of Bengal. The Buddhist Dynadty lasted for four centuries (750–1120 CE) and ushered in a period of stability and prosperity in Bengal. Gaur do not remind you of Gordian knot? Aisa bhi Hota hai?
Link to Pala dynasty
Pala dynasty link
Gour –Capital of Pala dynasty
Gour, or Gaur as it is spelt mostly in modern times, or Lakhnauti is a ruined city, in the Malda district of west Bengal, India, on the west bank of the Ganges river, 40 kilometers downstream from Rajmahal. It is said to have been founded by the mythic figure Lakshamana, and its most ancient name was Lakshmanavati, corrupted into “Lakhnauti”. The area was known as Gauda (Gauka, of Gau/Cow) at the time was under the rule of famous Bengali kings such as Sasanka. In the 7th century Gopala by a Democratic election in Gaur became the first independent Buddhist king of Bengal and founded the Pala Empire. The Pala dynasty ruled for nearly four centuries between the mid to late 8th century to 12th century CE. The Palas were often described by opponents as the Lords of Gauda. It was also a prosperous city during the Sena Dynadty’s rule in Bengal.
Link to Gaur
Gauda was a territory located in Bengal in ancient and mediaeval times.
The Arthashashtra of Chankya (around 350–-283 BC) refers to it along with Vanga, Pundra and Kamrupa. This geographical idea continues with some of the ancient texts. Varahmihira (around 6th century AD), in his Brhat Sanghita mentions six distinct janapadas viz: Gaudaka, Paundra,Vanga ,Samatata ,Vardhamana, and Tamralipt. It appears from his narration that Murshidabad district ,Birbhum district, and western parts of Bardhaman district formed the territory of ancient Gauda. Gauda and Vanga are sometimes used side by side.
Link to Gauda
The Somapura Mahaviharaa, a creation of Dharmapala, at Paharpur, Bangladesh, is the largest Buddhist Vihara in the Indian subcontinent, and has been described as a “pleasure to the eyes of the world.” Unesco made it World Heritage site in 1985. Sompur Bihara, also built by Dharmapala, is a monastery with 21 Acres (85,000 m²) complex has 177 cells, numerous stupas, temples and a number of other ancillary buildings. In 1985, the UN included the Sompur Bihara site in the world Cultural Heritage list. The Pala architectural style was followed throughout South –eastern Asia, China, Japan and Tibet.
Now we know that Gauda ,Gour and Phygia are the words, which are clues to world history.
Let us dig it further. Let us begin with Gauda kingdom of Bharatvarsha again.
Gauda kingdom of India
Historian says that The political limits of the geographical name Gauda further extended to the region of north Bengal, ie Pundravardhana. From the Aryamanjushri Mulakalpa we learn that Pundravardhana was ruled by Shashanka. This statement finds corroboration in the allusion to a struggle in the Dubi plates between Susthitavarman and Bhaskarvarman of Kamarupa on the one side and the king of Gauda on the other. As a ruler Bhaskarvarman’s contemporary was Shashanka. The struggle might have taken place in north Bengal. We know from Hiuen Tsang that Pundravardhana and Kamarupa were contiguous territories. Thus Gauda under Shashanka embraced parts of west Bengal, including its coasts, and north Bengal (at least for a short time).
The appellation Gauda was applied even to areas outside Bengal. It was used in a political sense in the Gaudavaho of Vakpati. In Vakpati’s account Magadha was included within the realm of the Gauda ruler.
In the early medieval period, the term Gauda had a wider connotation. The Rastrakuta and the Pratihara records styled the Pala rulers as Gaudeshvara, Gaudendra, Gaudaraja etc. This obviously implies that the name Gauda, which originally denoted parts of West Bengal, became so diffused that during the 8th and 9th centuries it was sometimes synonymous with the entire Pala kingdom.
We come across the term Pancha Gauda for the first time in the famous historical chronicle of Kashmir, the Rajatarangini of Kalhana. This indicates the widest diffusion of the name Gauda. Pancha Gauda referred to Gauda in association with Sarasvata, Kanyakubja, Mithila, and Utkala.
It thus appears that originally Gauda janapada lay to the west of Bhagirathi and that its core area was Murshidabad. Gradually, with the increase of the political might of Shashanka, the first independent ruler of Gauda, in the early part of 7th century AD, the political limits of Gauda extended stretching in the south to coastal Orissa and the north to Pundravardhana. The term sometimes even denotes the entire Pala empire. In the 13th century Gaur under the Bengal Sultans denoted the entire area of the sultanate. Its capital, also called Gaur, stood at the site previously known as Laksmanavati, and renamed Lakhnauti by the Muslim sultans.
Link to Gauda kingdom and Pala dynasty of Bengal
link to Harikela dynasty of Bengal.
Following two books can give you more detail about Gauda kingdom.
(1)Ancient Indian History and Civilization
By Sailendra Nath Sen
(2) Studies in the geography of ancient and medieval India
By Dineshchandra Sircar (p-123)
We have seen historical facts of Gauda kingdom of Bharatvarsha, now we find Gauda in Natherland too.
Gouda in Netherland
Gouda is a city and municipality in the western Netherland, in the province of South Holland. Gouda, which was granted City right in 1272, is famous for its Gouda Cheese, smoking pipes, and 15th-century city hall.
In the Middle Ages, a settlement was founded at the location of the current city by the Van der Goude family, who built a fortified castle alongside the banks of the Gouwe river, from which the family and the city took its name. The area, originallyMarshland, developed over the course of two centuries. By 1225, a canal was linked to the Gouwe and its estuary was transformed into a harbour. Gouda’s array of historic churches and other buildings makes it a very popular day trip destination.
Picture link to Gauda of Natherland
link to Pala parish in Estonia
Means Netherland is Clue to Gauda.
Now netherland should be our historical junction to understand world history.
We have seen Phrgians in Anatolia. We find Frisians in netherland .To understand European history let us further dig “ Phrygia” of Anatolia.
Read following site keeping” Phrygians” theme in centre of the content……Site says
“After Illyrians began their movement to the south from the Danube valley, Phrygian tribes which probably came to the Balkans together with some branches of the Hellenic group were forced to leave their settlements and start the migration which was to play an important role in the whole Indo-European history.
Phrygians, who could make a community with Hellenic and Armenian groups of the Indo-European family, are believed to come from Asia via South Russian steppes. First they lived in the northern Balkans, contacting with Thracians, Illyrians and Doric Greeks, and now had to cross the Bosporus and to settle in West Asia Minor, among non-Indo-European tribes who lived in Troy and other towns here.
Soon Hittites will become the most powerful nation in the Middle East, and also the first Indo-Europeans who left rich literature to us. Hittites (or Nesians as they called themselves) occupied lands in the center of Anatolia, Palaic tribes lived northwards around the city of Pala, and Luwians preferred southern and eastern lands”
Read the Link
Let us go straight now to Frisia of Netherlands
Frisia is a coastal region along the southeastern corner of the North Sea, i.e. the German Bight. Frisia is the traditional homeland of the Frisians, a Germanic people who speak Frisian, a language group closely related to the English langauge. Frisia extends from the northwestern Netherland across northwestern Germany to the border of Denmark.
Friesland is a province in the north of the Netherlands and part of the ancient, larger region of Frisia.
Until the end of 1996, the province bore Friesland as its official name. In 1997 this Dutch name lost its official status to the Frisian Fryslân. Nevertheless, Friesland remains in common usage, being the Dutch (and English) name for the province.
Friesland has 646,000 inhabitants (2010) and its Capital is Leeuwarden (W.Frisian: Ljouwert), with 91,817 inhabitants, in the center of the province.
Groningen Gronings: Grönnen; West Frisian: Grinslân) is the northeastern most province of the Netherlands. In the east it borders the German state of Niedersachsen (districts of Leer and Emsland), in the south Drenthe, in the west Friesland and in the north the Wadden Sea. The Capital of the province is the city of Groningen.
Now we should telly historical clue to Gauda of Bhratvarsha and Gauda of Netherlands.
Nadia of west Bengal
Nadia district is a District of the state of West Bengal, in the north east of India. It borders with Bangladesh to the east, North 24 Pargana and Hooghly districts to the south, Bardhman district to the west, and Murshidabad district to the north.
Nabadwip also Navadwip, Navadvipa or Nabadwipdham) is a city and a Municipality in Nadia dastrict in the Indian State of West Bengal. Its name means “9 islands” in the Bengali language. The islands are named Antardwip , Simantadwip, Rudradwip, Madhyadwip, Godrumdwip, Ritudwip, Jahnudwip, Modadrumdwip, and Koladwip. It is a birth place of many lilas (or “pastimes of God” in Hinduism) of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Many pilgrims from origins worldwide adhering to Gaudiya Vaishnavism come to Nabadwip every year on pilgrimage and for festivals like Sri Nabadwip-mandala Parikrama and holidays like Dol jatra,Rash purnima Daura Purnima.
The Netherlands is a geographically low-lying country, with about 25% of its area and 21% of its population located below sea level,[ and 50% of its land lying less than one metre Above sea level. This distinct feature contributes to the country’s name in many other European languages (e.g. German: Niederlande, Croatian: Nizozemska, French: Les Pays-Bas, Italian: Paesi Bassi and Spanish: Países Bajos, literally mean “(The) Low Countries”).
Malmedy (German obsolete Malmünd) is a Munisipality of Belgium. It lies in the country’s Wallon region, province of Liege. It belongs to the French community of Belgium, within which it is French-speaking with facilities for German-speakers. Some old sources spell the city’s name “Malmédy” as this accent was intentionally added when being part of Prusia and Germany, but its official website lists it as “Malmedy”, with no accent. In 1919 the city was annexed by the treaty of Versailles from Germany to Belgium, along with the neighboring city of Eupen, it formed an area of a German speaking community of Belgium. From 1940-1945 Malmedy was re-incorporated back into Germany, which was reversed after the war.
Malda district is a district of West Bengal,India. It lies 347 km (215 miles) north of Kolkata, the state capital. Mango and silk are notable products of this district. The special variety of mango produced in this region, popularly known by the name of the district, is exported across the world and is acclaimed internationally. The folk culture of “Gombhira” is a feature of the district, being a unique way of representation of joy and sorrow of daily life of the common people, as well as the unique medium of presentation on national and international matters.
Panini mentioned a city named Gourpura, which by strong reason may be identified as the city of Gouda, ruins of which are situated in this district. Examples are legion of the relics of a predecessor kingdom being used in the monuments of the successor kingdoms.
It had been within the limits of ancient Gour and Pandua (Pundrabardhan). These two cities had been the capital of Bengal in ancient and medieval ages and are equidistant, north and south, from English Bazar town (once known as Engelzavad established by the British rulers).
Hooghly district is one of the districts of the state of west Bengal in India. It can alternatively be spelt Hoogli or Hugli. The district is named after the Hooghly river.The headquarters of the district are at Chindure (Chuchura). There are 4 subdivisions in the district: ChinsuraSadar, chandannagar, Serampore and Arambag.
The origins of the Hooghly name are uncertain, whether the city or the river was named first.In its upper reaches the river is generally known as the Bh?girathi, until it reaches Hooghly. The word Bh?girathi literally means “caused by Bhagiratha”, a Mythical Sagar Dynasty prince who was instrumental in bringing the river Ganges from the heavens on to the earth, in order to release his 60,000 grand-uncles from a curse of the saint Kapila.
The Hague officially Gravenhage is the capital city of the Province of south Holland in the Netherlands. The Hague is in the centre of the Haaglanden conurbation and lies at the southwest corner of the larger Randstad conurbation.
Bardhaman district (Belgali: bôrdhoman) (also spelled as Burdwan or Burdhman) is a district in West Bengal. The headquarter of the district is Bardhman, though it houses other important industrial towns like Durgapur and Assansol. It is the seventh most populous district in India (out of 640).
Burdwan has a multi-cultural heritage. The Deuls (temples of rekha type) found here are reminiscent of Bengali Hindu architecture. The old temples bear signs of Hinduism, mostly belonging to the Sakta and Vaishnav followers.
The Kankaleswari Kali is also located in the city of Burdwan.
Vardhhamana continued to be a well-known division of the ancient Bengal. In the 6th century epigraphic evidence points to the existence of Vardhhamana as a famous Bhukti and in that age it was also mentioned as Radhadesa or Radha. Radha-Varddhamana area become a part of the Maurya empire and remained so throughout. But following the dissolution of the Gupta empire, one or more independent Kingdoms were established in Bengal.
Historically, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg were known as the Low countries., which used to cover a somewhat larger area than the current Benelux group of states. The region was called Belgica in Latin because of the Roman province Gallia Belgica which covered more or less the same area. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, it was a prosperous centre of commerce and culture. From the 16th century until the Belgian Revolution in 1830, when Belgium seceded from the Netherlands, many battles between European powers were fought in the area of Belgium, causing it to be dubbed the battleground of Europe, a reputation strengthened by both World Wars.
It looks as if Low countries carry very remote history of Gauda kingdom of India. Brussels remind us of Burdawan, Netherland remind us of Nadia , Antwerp remind us of Anatrdwip (One of Nav dwip), Luxemburg remind us of “Laksmanavati” or “Lakhnauti”. We have historical record of Gauda kingdom of Bharatvarsha of only 2000 years. .The ancient history of Gauda kingdom of Bharatvarsha is forgotten history ?
But in present research we have seen that Luwians and Phrygiand were allies in Anatolia. The same people are there on Bank of North Sea. Is it not Sanatan? Is it not eaternal?
Even though It is very difficult to find a link between two Gauda – One of India and second of Netherland – except few similar words.
But Gauda tradion of Europe and Bharatvarsha carried single sybol of “Gandaberunda”. That is clue to world history. So many European nations carry this particular symbol. It is symbol of Gauda culture of Bharatvarsha.
Common symbol is clue
The Gandaberunda (also known as the Berunda) is a two-headed mythological bird of Hindu mythology thought to possess magical strength. It is used as the official emblem by the Karnataka government and it is seen as an intricately sculptured motif in Hindu temples.
The mythology says that the Ganda Berunda took physical form in the Narsimha (Man-Lion) incarnation of Vishnu.
After Narasimha has slain the demon Hirankashyap, through the taste of blood, Narasimha did not let go of his dreadful form and the demigods were even more afraid from the supreme lord now, than before the demon. Shiva, the best friend of Vishnu, thus incarnated himself as Sharabh, a part-lion and part-bird beast. With his Wings, representing Goddess Durga and Kali, he embraced Narasimha and pacified him. But out of Narasimha (Vishnu) emerged an even more fearful form: Ganda Berunda, having two heads, fearful rows of teeth, black in complexion and with wide blazing wings. The destructive energy of Narasimha (Vishnu) in the form of the two-headed bird, began to fight fiercely with Sharabha (Shiva) for eighteen days.), Vishnu stopped the fight, and Sharabha easily tore apart the two-headed bird. Narasimha (Vishnu) himself displayed now his peace, and Shiva finally transformed back in his usual form.
Link to Gandaberunda
Karnataka ruler announced red cloth as Rajdhwaja or State flag. To add the principles of dharma and sathya, the flag got a slogan as “Sathymevodhbhavaramyaham” with imaginary bird Gandaberunda. The bird was surrounded by elephant headed lion on two sides and a lion carrying Mahishasura’s head on the top. The mythology has it that Gandaberunda and sharabas(elephant headed lion) adjoining it are a union of a strength of Lord Shiva and Lord Vishnu. When Lord Vishnu took Narasimha Avathar to kill Hiranyakashyap, father of his devotee Prahlad, his anger simmered even after Hiranyakashyap’s death. The entire universe, including the Gods and Goddesses went into a tizzy and wanted Lord Shiva to intervene. Means emblem stands for Vishnu. Dravid ( people who are follving Vishnu like Druv) people remembers this ancient emblem. They trust in this emblem.
Emblem of Holy Roman Empire
Now look at the picture of emblem of Holy Roman Empire . The emblem is outcome of ancient Druid priest tradition of Europe. The emblem does not carry the tradition of Vishnu ? The double-headed eagle is most commonly associated with the Byzantine Empire. and the Holy Roman Empire established by Merivingian kings.
Now look at facts about “Gundestrup Cauldron” of Iron age Europe.Gundestrup Cauldron is symbol of La tene culture (Dashrajan Culture?) wikipedia gives detail about it. I am haere providing link to facts.
Link to Gundestrup Cauldron”
Yes Dash Rajans of Ancient Bharat varsha are clue to European La ten culture.
At the end of the research
Capitoline / Kapalini
Yes we are in right direction. Phrygiya carried history of Pragjyotisha..land of Kamrup…Kamakhya…an ancient kingdom of Pala in India. Madan Kamdev temple was also build by Pala rulers in Pragjyotish kingdom.
Link to Madan Kamdev temple
Palatine Hill ,one of the sevev hills of ancient Rome carry history of ancient Pala rulers of Pragjyotisha (Assam).
Link to Palatine hill of Rome .
Book tink that mentions Kapalini and Vetal
Link to Kapalini goddess
Vatican or worshiper of Vetal ? Awasthya ?
Link to Vatican Hill of Rome.
Link to Ovates ( Awesthya who hwlped Manu to write Manu smruti ..Manu the founder of Ayodhya..
Pala founded Troy
Pala or Phrygians founded Troy. Means It carry history of Pragjyotish and Tripurasundrai.
Old English Troian “of or pertaining to ancient Troy,” from Latin Trojanus, from Troia, Troja “Troy,” from Greek Tros, name of a king of Phrygia, the mythical founder of Troy. In 17c., it was a colloquial term for “person of dissolute life, carousing companion.” The trade name for a brand of prophylactic contraceptive was registered 1927 in U.S. Trojan horse is attested from 1570s; the computer virus sense is attested by 1982.
safeguard,” c.1600, originally (late 14c.) “sacred image of Pallas Athene,” from Latin palladium, from Greek Palladion, noun use of neuter of Palladios “of Pallas.” It stood in the citadel of Troy and the safety of the city was believed to depend on it.
Link to troy history( Tripura sundari -Kamakhya)
Maha Tripura Sundari: The Great Beautiful One of the Three Worlds
Link to Twipra linkdom of Tripura
Link to Tripura sundari temple
Palace / Palatine
Link to Palatine will say you history of Pala rulers in Europe.Means the term Palace stand for Pala ? Pala who ruled Pragjyotish and Troy (reminder to Tripurasundari ) and Rome? You go to Ujjain and look at Place of Vikramaditya (William) sinhasan. There you will find place of Kalbhairav. Each Kalbhairava temple having wolf as its vehicle. Romulus and Remus who founded Capitoline (Kapalini) and Palatine (Hill of Pala) were twins nurished by she wolf in jungle. Still they carry tradition of Vetat (Vetican- Vetican Hill..Hill of Vetat temple)…..Seven Hills of Rome carry saptmatrika yogini Tantra of Pala too. Now more evidences you want ? At last they reached up to POland and sweden. Lav nandan (London ) also took care of Them…London (Lav nandan ) is their ally…Means Half of world know that London stand for Lav nandan…We Rambhakt not know it. It is irony of fate of Ramvanshis….Hindu religion and Bharatvarsha.
Link to Vikramaditya…Legendty king of Ujjain..we also came to Throne with Blessings of Indra…Indra that we forget totally.
Janju clan who fought at gate way of India (Jaypala) belong to Pala …The facts about Janjua clears that the clan belong to Pandava…We know that Parikshit started fight against Kali….Still Parikshit is fighting against Kaliyuga….The tribe who were in Pauri..now a days reside in Paris. Germanic tribe clue to Janjua …Bavaria carry history of Bawar tribe of Uttarakhand.Pauri was administrative centre of Garthwal Paris was administrative centre of Gaul.
Link to Janjua will say you further history.
Avanti and Vetal
Link to Ujjain….Avantikapuri.…suprisingly…there is Avemtine Hill also there In Rome
Seven Hills means Sapt Shrunga….What is difference then? Gauda culture of Maratha (Matri) worship Sapt shrung Devu..
Link to Sapt shrung Devi of Maharashtra
Cardinal / Kalchakra
Link to Gaurdian of eight direction.
Link to Kalchakra ,ancient Tibetan tradition..the land of Amarawati.
Link to Kalchakra facts
Link to Cardinal facts
Link to Cardinality can explain you more
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Anarta /Anatolia / Atlantis
we find lost continent Atlantis
At the end of research we find that Anatolia was carrying history of ancient Anarta kingdom of Bharatvarsha. That Shryati founded in present day Gujarat. capital city of Anarta was Kushasttali.Kushsthali was beneath ocean.Anarta was lost continent of Atlantis. Now we find that original root word of Crete was Kursawar or Kussattar. .Shryati happened to be prior to Ram and river Saryu was named after Sharyati. Pl read The detail I mention in the chapter –7(1)
Link to Archaelogical findings of Kushsthali
lINK TO BOOK BY HELENE PETROVNA BLAVATSKY (BELIEVE ME SHE HAS -NOT SOMETHING TO BUT EVERYTHING – TO DO WITH KRISHNA..AND PARTICULARLY WITH BALDEVA …ANARTA)READ PAGE 259.
Pala : Lords of Gauda
Link to the book “Studies In The Geography Of Ancient And Medieval India”
By D. C. Sircar will say you history of Gauda and its connection with Pala rulers of Bharatvarsha. Palas were carrier of Gauda culture.
I think that Parikars of Cocan and Parkars of France both can be reminder to history of Kushthali..The capital beneath the Ocean.
Know meaning of Cardinal..(Link)that is priest tradtion of Vetican
Link to Vetal Pachisi katha
Link to Vetal deval of Orrissa
Pala belong to Panadava
One theory says that Pala belong to Pandava…Parikshit…Janmejay..line.
Jaypala Jhanjua defended Gate way of India. Link to Janjhua history says the history of Pala.
Link to Royal Maratha warriors clan and Their Kuldevta at Jehuri will say you further History.
Link to Jehuri and Kuldevta Khandoba
Pala and Delhi
One site says that Anangpal founded Delhi …Jogmaya temple of Delhi says the story of Pala rule in Delhi. ya Pala were carriers of Yogini Tantra world over.
Link to Delhi ruled by Anangpal
Link to the Yogmaya temple of Delhi
Now if we find all these indian Royals in Anatolia..then it is not matter of Surprise.they were carrying their traditions only.
Now we know that Phrygia was ruled by Pala rulers. The following link will say you story of migration from Phrygia to Rome. Now we also know that Pala were lords of Gauda. Pala enered with Vetal. Palatine hill and Vetican hill are clue to Pala and Vetal.
Link that expalins migration of Pala in Rome
PL READ DETAILS IN CHAPTER – 7(1) of Book section