“Arab marched through the central Iranian deserts. After long siege they took Nishapur ,( west of modern massshad) the main city of Khurasan After that Arab marched towards Sasanian in the northeast, the city of Marw. (Persian last ruler)Yazdajird third assesinated. Arab took control of plain of north and west Afghanistan including town of Bactra and Herat. Son of Yedajird (King of Heart)- Firuz came back with chinese army help. After this turmoil Arab regained Herat and Balkh by 670 A..d. then Tibetan and turk became agrresive. In the early ninth century tibetan army participated in sogadian capital Samarkand.(p.179). The califa in Bagdad ,Harun -al-rashid , personaly moved to the east, but he died near Tus in A.d. 809. His younger son Al -mamun became Governor of the east.Until that time king of kabul ,with help of Tibetan resisted mamun.Hindu and Budhist principalities in the valley of Hinukush continue to defy Arab rulers.”
– “THE AFGHAN” By Willem Vogelsang
If you want to recognize Ram then read all the following words carefully. It is history of Bharatvarsha or Hindustan. Nobody can deny that. Unfortunately History of present India does not carry these chapters. Now study those four hundred years carefully and know Ram. We buried our history. When Alexander invaded Bharatvarsha ,we did the same thing. Our habit of burying history gradually deprieve us of Ram. Now know the buried history of those four hundred years of Bhratvarsha. Capisa was in the centre of that history.
Willem Vogelsang explained the geographical location of “Capisa”, in his book –“THE AFGHAN” .He explaines that Capisa or modern site of Bagram lies at the southern enterance to the salang pass, and two major routes across the Hindukush , namely along the Ghorbandh river towards Bamyan , and along Panjshir river towards the Khak pass. ( p- 107)
Willem Vogelsang mentions that Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang says that Ciapislie, or Ca- pisene, was 4000 A’, or about 666 miles in circuit. If this measurement be even approximately correct, the district must have included the whole of kafiristan, as well as the two large valleys of Ghorbandh and Panjshir, as these are together not more than 300 miles in circuit. Ciapishe is further described as being entirely surrounded by mountains .
Conquest of Persia
The Islamic conquest of Afghanistan (642–870) began in the middle of the 7th century after the Islamic conguest of Persia was completed, when Arab Muslims defeated the Sassanid Empire at the battles of Walaja, Al -qadisiyyah and Nahavand. The Muslim Arabs then began to move towards the lands east of Persia and in 642 captured the city, Herat. By 667 AD the Afghan area was under invasion by the Arabs but in 683 Kabul revolted and completely routed the invading army which was led by the Governor of Seistan. It was not until 870 that Kabul and the Afghan area was brought under control by the Arabs. The complete conversion of Afghanistan to Islam was during the period of the Ghaznavids, in or about the 11th century.
The invasion of Persia was completed five years after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and all of the Persian territories came under Arab control, though pockets of tribal resistance continued for centuries in the Afghan territories. During the 7th century, Arad Armies made their way into the region of Afghanistan from Khorasan with the new religion of Islam. At this point in time the area that is currently Afghanistan had a multi-religious population consisting of Hindus, Buddhists, Zoroastrians ,jews and others.
Invasion on Afghanistan
Willem Vogelsang narrates the intial story of invasion in his book “THE AFGHAN”.He says “Arab marched through the central Iranian deserts. After long siege they took Nishapur ,( west of modern massshad) the main city of Khurasan After that Arab marched towards Sasanian in the northeast, the city of Marw. (Persian last ruler)Yazdajird third assesinated. Arab took control of plain of north and west Afghanistan including town of Bactra and Herat. Son of Yedajird (King of Heart)- Firuz came back with chinese army help. After this turmoil Arab regained Herat and Balkh by 670 A..d. then Tibetan and turk became agrresive. In the early ninth century tibetan army participated in sogadian capital Samarkand.(p.179). The califa in Bagdad ,Harun -al-rashid , personaly moved to the east, but he died near Tus in A.d. 809. His younger son Al -mamun became Governor of the east.Until that time king of kabul ,with help of Tibetan resisted mamun.Hindu and Budhist principalities in the valley of Hinukush continue to defy Arab rulers.” (page 177)
Fall of Tibet
“ By mid ninth century Tibetan crumbuled under attacks from the side of chinese and other people.And road was open for Muslim rulers to occupy all the country. “(p.180)
“For longtime Arab failed to permanantly establish their power in Southeast and East Afghanistan. So called Ghazi assembled to fight them. There rised local Saffarid dynasty in midninth century. The early Islamic geogrophers regared hazarajat district as part of Hind (Hindus).” (p.180)
The people of Kabul were then, as they are now, very patriotic and seldom brooked interference from outside. They fought Arabs and other Muslim rulers from 663 A.D. to 1021 A.D. but never accepted their suzerainty.
India remained Safe
Every student of history knows that during this period of about four hundred years India remained safe from any intrusions – or invasions from the Northwest. The occupation of Kabul by Shankara Varman only led to a grim struggle, which reached its climax during the reign of Gopal Varman (902 to 904 A.D.), who succeeded Shankara Varman; and another military expedition was sent by the Kashmir ruler under a General by name Prabhakar Deva to restore order and tighten the grip. The Kashmiri General though successful did not press his victory too far. He had realized by his experience that the people of Kabul could not be kept for long under subjection. He started negotiations with them and agreed to install Lalliya’s son by name Toramana on the Kabul throne. This was done and Toramana ascended the Kabul throne under a new name or title, Kamluka, which was given to him by Prabhakar Deva. As already seen, Alberuni in his list of Kabul kings describes him as Kamlu. Henceforth, the relations between Kabul and Kashmir became very cordial and in course of time marriage relations came to be established between the ruling dynasties of the two countries, which further strengthened the mutual bonds of amity, and concord. Kshema Gupta who ruled Kashmir from 951 – 959 A.D. married the granddaughter of Bhima, who is described by Alberuni as the fourth Brahman King to rule Kabul after Lalliya. We have it on the authority of Kalhana that this Kabul King Bhima came to Kashmir and stayed there for some time and built a temple dedicated to Vishnu which was given the name of Bhima Keshava. The dedication of a temple to Vishnu would show that the Hindu Shahis of Kabul were Vaishnavites and not Buddhists as some take pleasure in describing them as such. The temple of Bhima Keshava is even now existing in a village now known as Bumzu near Mattan, though as a Muslim Ziarat, and is now known as Ziarat Bam Din Sahib.
Link to more facts
In the wake of Muslim invasions of Kabul and Kapisa in second half of 7th century (AD 664), the Kapisa/Kabul ruler called by Muslim writers Kabul Shah (Shahi of Kabul) made an appeal to the Ksatriyas of the Hind who had gathered there in large numbers for assistance and drove out the Muslim invaders as far as Bost.This king of Kapisa/Kabul who faced the Muslim invasion was undoubtedly a Ksatriya.
In AD 645, when Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang was passing through the Uttrapatha, Udabhanda or Udabhandapura was the place of residence or secondary capital of emperor of Kapisa which then dominated over 10 neighboring states comprising Lampaka, Nagara, Gandhara and Varna (Bannu) and probably also Jaguda. About Gandhara, the pilgrim says that its capital was Purushapura; the royal family was extinct and country was subject to Kapisa; the towns and villages were desolate and the inhabitants were very few. It seems that under pressure from Arabs in the southwest and the Turks in the north, the kings of Kapisa had left their western possessions in the hands of their viceroys and made Udabhanda their principal seat of residence.
The first Hindu Shahi dynasty was founded in AD 870 by Kallar (see above). The kingdom was bounded on the north by the Hindu kingdom of Kashmir, on the east by Rajput kingdoms, on the south by the Muslim Emirates of Multan and Mansura, and on the west by the Abbasid Caliphate.
Fall of Kabul 671 AD
The reason why Udabhandapura was selected in preference to Peshawar is at present unknown but it is possible that the new city of Udabhanda was built by Kapisa rulers for strategic reasons.Udhabanadpura (waihind or Ohind ) in the east was held by the Dynasty called by later writers the Shahis.
In AD 671 Muslim armies seized Kabul and the capital was moved to Udabhandapura where they became known as the Rajas of Hindustan.
Link to more facts
Udabhandapura and Brahmin king
Studies in the geography of ancient and medieval India
By Dineshchandra Sircar (p-290) Know about Udabhandapura
Link to Hund or Waihind (Udabhandapura )
“Now in the following times no Muslim conqueror passed beyond the frontier of Kâbul and the river Sindh until the days of the Turks, when they seized the power in Ghazna under the Sâmânî dynasty, and the supreme power fell to the lot of Nâ?ir-addaula Sabuktagin. This prince chose the holy war as his calling, and therefore called himself al-Ghâzî (“the warrior/invader”). In the interest of his successors he constructed, in order to weaken the Indian frontier, those roads on which afterwards his son Yamin-addaula Ma?mûd marched into India during a period of thirty years and more. God be merciful to both father and son ! Mahmûd utterly ruined the prosperity of the country, and performed there wonderful exploits, by which the Hindus became like atoms of dust scattered in all directions, and like a tale of old in the mouth of the people. Their scattered remains cherish, of course, the most inveterate aversion towards all Muslims. This is the reason, too, why Hindu sciences have retired far away from those parts of the country conquered by us, and have fled to places which our hand cannot yet reach, to Kashmir, Benares, and other places. And there the antagonism between them and all foreigners receives more and more nourishment both from political and religious sources.”
Then entred Pala warriors
Then Pala enters war .Following link explains who were Pala.
The initial Hindu Shahi dynasty was the House of Kallar, but in AD 964 the rule was assumed from Bhima upon his death by theJanjua emperor Maharajadhiraja Jaypala, son of Rai Asatapala Janjua and a descendant of Emperor Janmejaya. Epithets from the Bari Kot inscriptions record his full title as “Parambhattaraka Maharajadhiraja Paramesvara Sri Jayapala deva” the first Emperor of the Janjua Shahi phase. He is celebrated as a hero for his struggles in defending his kingdom from the Turkic rulers of Ghazani.
Emperor Jayapala was challenged by the armies of Sultan Sabuktgin and later by his son sultan Mahmud of Bhazani. According to the Minháj ad-D?n in his chronicle Tabaqát-i Násiri, he bears a testament to the political and powerful stature of Maharaja Jayapala Shah, “Jayapála, who is the greatest of all the rájas (kings) of Hind…” Misra wrote on Jaypala: “(He) was perhaps the last Indian ruler to show such spirit of aggression, so sadly lacking in later Rajput kings.”
Prince Anandpala who ascended his father’s throne (in about March/April AD 1002) already proved an able warrior and general in leading many battles prior to his ascension. According to ‘Adáb al-Harb’ (pp. 307–10) in about AD 990, it is written, “the arrogant but ambitious Raja of Lahore Bharat, having put his father in confinement, marched on the country of Jayapála with the intention of conquering the districts of Nandana, Jailum (Jehlum) and Tákeshar” (in an attempt to take advantage of Jayapala’s concentrated effort with defence against the armies of Ghazni). “Jayapala instructed Prince Anandapala to repel the opportunist Raja Bharat. Anandapala defeated Bharat and took him prisoner in the Battle of Takeshar and marched on Lahore and captured the city and extended his father’s kingdom yet further.”
However, during his reign as emperor many losses were inflicted on his kingdom by the GhaZnavids. During the battle of Chach between Mahmud and Anandapala, it is stated that “a body of 30,000 Gakhars fought alongside as soldiers for the Shahi Emperor and incurred huge losses for the Ghaznavids”. However, despite the heavy losses of the enemy, he lost the battle and suffered much financial and territorial loss. This was Anandapala’s last stand against Sultan Mahmud of Ghazani. He eventually signed a treaty with the Ghaznavid Empire in AD 1010 and shortly a year later died a peaceful death.
It was turning point of History of Bharatvarsha.
Prince Trilochanpála, the son of Anandapala, ascended the imperial throne in about AD 1011. Inheriting a reduced kingdom, he immediately set about expanding his kingdom into the sivalik Hills, the domain of the Rai of Sharwa. His kingdom now extended from the River Indus to the upper Ganges valley. According to Al-Biruni, Tirlochanpála “was well inclined towards the Muslims (Ghaznavids)” and was honourable in his loyalty to his father’s peace treaty to the Ghaznavids. He eventually rebelled against Sultan Mahmud and was later assassinated by some of his own mutinous troops in AD 1021-22, an assassination which was believed to have been instigated by the Rai of Sharwa who became his arch-enemy due to Tirlochanpala’s expansion into the Siwalik ranges. He was romanticised in Punjabi folklore as the Last Punjabi ruler of Punjab.
Link for Kaubulshahi facts
And history proceed…….
From the eighth century to the ninth century, many inhabitants of what is present-day Afghanistan ,pakistan and areas of northern India were converted to Sunni Islam. It is surmised from the writings of Al Beruni that some Pasthuns living in Pakhtunkhawa (present-day western Pakistan) had not been completely converted. Al Biruni, writing in Tarikh al Hind, also alludes to the Pashtun tribes of Pakhtunkhwa as Hindus.
Al Beruni mentions the Afghans once (ed Sachau, I 208)saying that “ in the western mountains of India live various tribes of Afghans who extend to the neighbourhood of the Sindh (ie Indus )valley .Thus in the eleventh century when the Afghans are first mentioned , they are found occupying the Sulaiman mountains now occupied by their descendents , the very tribes which the advocates of the exclusive claims of the Durannis will not admit to be true Afghans . Al Beruni no doubt also alludes to them in the passage (loc. Cit .p 199 ) where he says that rebellious savage races , tribes of Hindus , or akin to
them inhabit the mountains which form the frontier of India towards the west .”
“The most explicit mentioning of the Afghans appears in Al- Baruni’s Tarikh al hind (eleventh century AD) Here it is said that various tribes of Afghans lived in the mountains in the west of India . Al Baruni adds that they were savage people and he describes them as Hindus .”
“Various historical sources such as Martin Ewans, E.J. Brill and Farishta have recorded the introduction of Islam to Kabul and other parts of Afghanistan to the invasions of Mahmud of Ghazna ”
“The Arabs advanced through Sistan and conquered Sindh early in the eighth century . Elsewhere however their incursions were no more than temporary , and it was not until the rise of the Saffarid dynasty in the ninth century that the frontiers of Islam effectively reached Ghazni and Kabul . Even then a Hindu dynasty the Hindushahis , held Gandhara and eastern borders .From the tenth century onwards as Persian language and culture continued to spread into Afghanistan , the focus of power shifted to Ghazni , where a Turkish dynasty , who started by ruling the town for the Samanid dynasty of Bokhara , proceeded to create an empire in their own right. The greatest of the Ghaznavids was Muhmad who ruled between 998 and 1030. He expelled the Hindus from Ghandhara , made no fewer than 17 raids into India.”
“He encouraged mass conversions to Islam , in India as well as in Afghanistan.”
“Al -Idrisi (1100 AD -1165/1166 AD) testifies that until as late as the 12th century, a contract of investiture for every Shahi king was performed at Kabul and that here he was obliged to agree to certain ancient conditions which completed the contract .”.
“In 588 (1192) according to Farishta the army assembled by Muizz al din Muhammed b Sam consisted of Turks , Tadjiks and Afghans , and his opponent Pithorai (Prithoi Rai) assembled a force of Rajput and Afghan horsemen . Thus in this great war Mussulmans and Hindu Afghans are represented as fighting on both sides , which probably indicates that they were not yet completely converted to Islam.”
“During the end of the ninth century, the Samanids extended its rule from Bukhara to as far south as the Indus River and west into most of Persia. Although Arab Muslim intellectual life was still centered in Baghdad, Shi’s Islam minated in the Samanid areas at this time. By the mid-tenth century, the Samanid Dynasty had crumbled in the face of attacks from tribes to the north and from the GazanawidsTurkic Dynasty in Afghanistan.
History of Conversion
“Arab armies carrying the banner of Islam came out of the west to defeat the Sasanians in 642 AD then they marched with confidence to the east. On the western periphery of the Afghan area the princes of Heart and Seitan
gave way to rule by Arab governors but in the east, in the mountains, cities submitted only to rise in revolt and the hastily converted returned to their old beliefs once the armies passed. The harshness and avariciousness of Arab rule produced such unrest, however, that once the waning power of the Caliphate
became apparent, native rulers once again established themselves independent. Among these the Saffarids of Seistan shone briefly in the Afghan area. The fanatic founder of this dynasty, the coppersmith’s apprentice Yaqub ibn Layth Saffari, came forth from his capital at Zaranj in 870 AD and marched through Bost ,Kandahar,Kabul,Bamyan,Balkh and Heart conquering in the name of Islam.”
– Nancy Hatch Dupree ,1971
During the eighth through the ninth centuries, many inhabitants of what is present-day Afghanistan and western Pakistan were converted to Sunni Islam. In some cases, however, people that were conquered by the Muslims would rebel and revert to prior forms of worship. The mountain areas were still not completely converted and remained largely by people of non-Muslim faiths. In a book called Hudad –Al -Alam, written in 982 CE, it mentions a village nearJalabad in Afghanistan , where the local king used to have many Hindu, Muslim and Afghan wives.
In the eighth and ninth centuries ancestors of many of today’s Turkic-speaking Afghans settled in the Hindu Kush area (partly to obtain better grazing land) and began to assimilate much of the culture and language of the Pashtun tribes
already present there…
Ghaznavids and Ghurids
Out of the Samanid Dynasty came the Ghaznavids
, whose warriors forged the first great Islamic empire from Ghazni (Afghanistan) that spanned much of the Iranian plateau, central Asia and conducted many successful raids into India during the end of the ninth century, the Samanids extended its rule from Bukhara to as far south as the Indus Rivers and west into most of Persia. By the mid-tenth century, the Samanid dynasty had crumble in the face of attacks from Turkish tribes to the north and from the Ghaznavids, a rising Turkic Muslim dynasty in Afghanistan. Besides Turkic people, large part of the Ghaznavid Empire was made up of local Muslim Afghans from what is now Afghanistan and western parts of Pakistan.
It is surmised from the writings of Al Beruni that some Afghans who lived in west of India (modern-day Afghanistan) had not been completely converted to Islam.
The most explicit mentioning of the Afghans appears in Al- Baruni’s Tarikh al hind (eleventh century AD). Here it is said that various tribes of Afghans lived in the mountains in the west of India. Al Baruni adds that they were savage people and he describes them as Hindus.
—Willem Vogelsang, 2002
Al Beruni mentions the Afghans once (ed Sachau, I 208) saying that in the western mountains of India live various tribes of Afghans who extend to the neighbourhood of the Sindh (i.e.,Indus valley. Thus in the eleventh century when the Afghans are first mentioned, they are found occupying the Sulaiman Mountains now occupied by their descendants, the very tribes which the advocates of the exclusive claims of the Durannis will not admit to be true Afghans. Al Beruni no doubt also alludes to them in the passage (loc. Cit. p 199) where he says that rebellious savage races, tribes of Hindus, or akin to them inhabit the mountains which form the frontier of India towards the west.
—H.A. Rose, 1997
Various historical sources such as Martin Ewans, E.J. Brill and Farishta have recorded that the complete conversion of Afghanistan, Pakistan to Islam was during the rule of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni.
The Arabs advanced through Sistan and conquered Sindh early in the eighth century. Elsewhere however their incursions were no more than temporary, and it was not until the rise of the Saffarid Dynasty in the ninth century that the frontiers of Islam effectively reached Ghazni and Kabul. Even then a Hindu dynasty the Hindushahis ,held Gandhara and eastern borders. From the tenth century onwards as Persian language and culture continued to spread into Afghanistan, the focus of power shifted to Ghazani ,where a Turkish dynasty, who started by ruling the town for the Samanid dynasty of Bokhara, proceeded to create an empire in their own right. The greatest of the Ghaznavids was Mahmud
who ruled between 998 and 1030. He expelled the Hindus from Ghandhara, made no fewer than 17 raids into India. He encouraged mass conversions to Islam, in India as well as in Afghanistan.
—Martin Ewans, 2002
Al-Idrisi testifies that until as late as the 12th century, a contract of investiture for every Shahi king was performed at Kabul and that here he was obliged to agree to certain ancient conditions which completed the contract. The Ghaznavid military incursions assured the domination of Sunni Islam in what is now Afghanistan and western Pakistan. The most renowned of the dynasty’s rulers was Mahmud of Ghazni, who consolidated control over the areas south of the Amu Darya Carried out devastating raids into India. With his booty from India, Mahmud built a great capital at Ghazani, founded universities, and patronized scholars. By the time of his death, Mahmud ruled a vast empire that stretched from Kurdistan to the entire Hindukush region as far east as the Punjab as well as territories far north of the Amu Darya. However, as occurred so often in this region, the demise in 1030 of this military genius who had expanded the empire to its farthest reaches was the death knell of the dynasty itself. The rulers of the Ghurids of Ghor in modern-day Afghanistan, captured and burned Ghazni in 1149, just as the Ghaznavids had once conquered Ghor. Not until 1186, however, was the last representative of the Ghaznavids uprooted by the Ghorids from his holdout in Lahore, in the Punjab.
Hsuan Tsang was the last traveller to record Afghanistan before the coming of Islam. Up un-til his visit. “the cycle of invasion, expansion, and decline had been regular, as one empire succeeded another in the virile north, only to dissipate its resources of strength in the vast enervating plains of India,” wrote Fraser-Tytler. However while Hsuan Tsang was writing about the peaceful Kabul valley, in the middle if the seventh century, Arabs carrying the new and zealous faith of Islam reached Persia and an-other group coming from Basra reached Sistan and soon took control of large part of Western and south Afghanistan and the ruling Sassanians suffered a major defeat in 642. However from the north came equally commited Turkish Moslems and conflict grew between the two races. The approached Kabul via Kandahar and Ghazni, where they fought zealous defenders, who put up brave resistance. However Kabul was stoutly defending itself from the Moslem invaders under the leadership of a Turkish King, known by many names including Kabul Shahi, Turki Shahi or the Ratbil Shahan. The King had been partly Hinduised and fought gallantly against the Moslem invaders, resisting so strongly that their epics are recorded in Islamic literature.Kabul, mountain fortress capital of the Hindu Kush, was finally captured in 664 after a full year of siege.This clash between Arabs and Turks wasn’t settled until the middle of the eighth century under the Turkish General Abu Muslim who brought stability to the regions of the Hindu Kush. However in the next 100 years the combined influence of the Arabs and Turks succeeded in dominating the old faiths, particularly Bhuddism, except for that pocket of resistance in Kafirstan where their animist beliefs remained.A rather peaceful period followed under the Caliph Harun-al-Rashid (785-809) and his son Mamun who encouraged the arts and sciences flourished and Merv and Samarkand. There fol-lowed an unsettled period when the Saminids extended their influence across to India, but as their influence declined, Hinduism challenged the Moslem faith and appeared for the last time in the Kabul Valley. From the Kabul valley the ruler of the Punjab, Jaipal pushed his religious doctrine towards Ghazni, he met a rising Islamic dynasty which was to change the course of history. King or Sultan Mahmud. Although the Arab conquistadors had brought Is-lam to the Sind region of India some three hundred years before, it never spread.King Mahmud (Turk)of Ghazni was a strong leader and in words of Fraser Tytler, whose iconoclastic zeal was to carry fire and sword deep into Hindu India and to pave the way for the domination of his Islamic successors.But like so many rulers, on his death the dynasty faltered, and was taken over by the Turks. Then we see the short domination of the mountain people from south-east of Herat who established the House of Ghor and who dominated the twelfth century and their territory stretched well into India and ruled the much coverted Delhi.. At the beginning of the 13th century a new race came to Afghanistan from eastern shores of the Caspian Sea, they were the Khwarizm, a Turkish race.. They established a Kingdom in Bamian and from there ruled Kabul. This peaceful time didn’t last long before the heart of central Asia was ripped out by Genghis Khan and his Mongol hoardes who came from the north of China and by 1218 AD reached Central Asia.
GENGHIS KHAN – An apostle of extremes.Ghengis Khan with 100,000 mounted mehad reached Balkh by 1220 destroying everything and everyone in their wake. Jalal-ad-Din, the son of Sultan Muhammad who ruled the Kha-warizm empire, from Ghazni, managed to unite many tribes from the area and decided to defend against the invading Mongols. He advanced to the confluence of the Panjshir and Ghorband Rivers where a bloody battle ensued against Genghis Khan and his army of 30,000 skilled horsemen. Imagine the scene, 30,000 wild mongol horsemen on one side of the Panjcher River lusting for blood and on the other a more civilised army recently brought together. The beginning of the 13th century saw sweeping changes in Central Asia – not to mention Russia – for this was the time of the great Mongol migration. Unlike the Scythians, Sarma-tians, Huns and Turks who preceded them, these barbarians who erupted from the far-off borders of Manchuria were of an entirely different race. Round-headed, yellow-skinned, with slanting eyes and high cheek-bones, they were related to the peoples of northern China and Korea, although they spoke a Turkic language. They were also indescribably dirty and malodorous, for water was something they regarded as too precious to be waster on personal hygiene. They were not a hirsute people, but so infested were they with lice that their chests ap-peared to be thickly covered in hair.The astonishing conquests of Ghenghis Khan swept aside several empires and innumerable petty kingdoms, and brought all countries from the Black Sea to the Yellow Sea under direct Mongol control by the end of the first quarter of the thirteenth century. The unstoppable Mongol tide continued under his successors. Baghdad fell in 1258, the Sung capital of Hang-chow on 1276. In Europe the Mongol empire-the largest in history-extended as far as Poland and Hungary, taking in most of Russia on the way.The Mongols had been completely unlettered but now, with the help of the astute, Eastern Turks, they set about writing their own language down, using the Uighur script. This fruitful collaboration, accom-panied by intermarriage, was in time to produce a new hybrid master race and a new world leader, Tamerlane, but in the meantime a Mongol emperor sat on the illustrious throne of China and entertained curios visitors from distant Europe. Kublai Khan, grandson of Ghenghis, had become the Great Khan, or Chief of all the Mongol clans, in 1260. Karakoram, in Mongolia, was the headquarters of the huge empire, to which all clan leaders were summoned periodically etc etc. p 12Chingis Khaan Ghengis Khan Kublai Khan (grandson of Gheghis Khan)In 1218 Ghneghis Khan invades transoxiana 1227 he dies in 1996 (Christchurch Press) 2 Jan 1996, said: While other media groups were naming their man of the year, the “Washington Post” was thinking big yesterday and going right for the “Man of the Millennium”, And the winner is…Genghis Khan.the newspaper gave the nod to the 13th century Mongol conqueror as “an apostle of extremes..who embodies the half-civilised, half-savage duality of the human race.”
Link for facts
But Kafirs of Capisa Continued Their Fight
All fighters left Capisa (Gate way of India) But Fair complexioned Kafirs continued their fight against invaders. (Their Fair complexion is cause of this research).
– We find references of Kafir fighters in different historical records.
The first Muslim appellation of Kafirs occurs in 1020 CE in the writings of the historians of Mahmud of Ghazni.
– Musulman historian Ibn al-Hussain Baihaki makes second reference to (Siah-Posh) Katirs and calls them Hindus. He claims that ‘all the Hindu Katirs were brought under the rule of Sultan Masud’ (1033 CE) (Early History of India, I, p 128).
-Third reference occurs in Tuzak-i-Timuri where the Kafirs came into conflict with Sultan Timur (1399 CE). Timur found the Siah-Posh tribes (Kators and Kams) apparently holding a kingdom extending from the frontiers of Kashmir to mountains of Kabol and containing numerous villages and towns with capital at Jorkal. The ruler is stated to be Adalshu, Uda or Udasu. Timur describes the
Katirs as men of a powerful frame and fair complexion, idolaters for most part, and speaking a tongue distinct from Turki, Persian, Hindi or Kashmiri. Timur attacked the Katir strongholds .
– In fifteenth century, Sultan Mahmud, descendant of Sultan Timur lled expedition against the Siah-Poshes and thereby earned the title of Ghazi. Mahmud is originally an Arabic given name. Moghul emperor Babur notes the Panjshir Musulmans as paying tribute to their neighbors, the Siah-Posh Katirs.
– Moghul emperor Akbar sent his son Jahangir in 1581 against the Siah-Posh Kafirs of the mountains of Katir.
– Abu’l Fazl, in his history of Timur’s expeditions, speaks of the Hindúán-i-Katir, a country which is described as bounding territories of Buner, Swat and Bajaur on the north. ( Now you are well acquinted with the term Burgujjar .Burgujjar were suryavanshi Rajputs who ever fought in First rank and file.Now you should understand the term Burgundi …Broborn…. Barbarian)
– 1839, the Kafirs sent a deputation to Sir William Macnaghten in Jalalabad claiming relationship with the fair skinned British troops who had invaded the country. Jalalabad .”
When I was researching Afghanistan .I could not understand cause of continued fight of Kafirs against invaders at the very gate way of Bharatvarsha. And search begin. Who they were? What are their tribes? Their fair complexion diverted my search to Europe. I tried to search those tribes in Europe and suddenly amazeing Bharat Emerged. …to my surprise Ram emerged.
Equivalence to Sanskrit Kamboja
Kapisa is related to and included Kafiristan. Scholar community holds that Kapisa is equivalent to Sanskrit Kamboja. In other words, Kamboja and Kapisa are believed to be two attempts to render the same foreign word (which could not appropriately be transliterated into Sanskrit). Dr S Levi further holds that old Persian Ka(m)bujiya or Kau(n)bojiya, Sanskrit Kamboja as well as Kapisa, all etymologically refer to the same foreign word. Even the evidence from third century Buddhist tantra text Mahamayuri (which uses Kabusha for Kapisha) and the Ramayana-manjri by Sanskrit Acharya, Kshmendra of Kashmir (11th c AD), which specifically equates Kapisa with Kamboja, thus substituting the former with the latter, therefore, sufficiently attest that Kapisa and Kamboja are equivalent. Even according to illustrious Indian history series: History and Culture of Indian People, Kapisa and Kamboja are equivalent. Scholars like Dr Moti Chandra, Dr Krishna Chandra Mishra etc also write that the Karpasika (of Mahabharata) and Kapisa (Ki-pin/Ka-pin/Chi-pin of the Chinese writings) are synonymous terms. Thus, both Karpasika and Kapisa are essentially equivalent to Sanskrit Kamboja. And Paninian term Kapisi is believed to have been the capital of ancient Kamboja. Kapisa (Ki-pin, Ke-pin, Ka-pin, Chi-pin of the Chinese records), in fact, refers to the Kamboja kingdom, located on the south-eastern side of the Hindukush in the Paropamisadae region. It was anciently inhabited by the Asvakayana (Greek: Assakenoi), and the Asvayana (Greek Aspasio) (q.v.) sub-tribes of the Kambojas. Epic Mahabharata refers to two Kamboja settlements: one called Kamboja, adjacent to the Daradas (of Gilgit), extending from.
Kafiristan to south-east Kashmir including Rajauri/Poonch districts, while the original Kamboja, known as Parama Kamboja was located north of Hindukush in Transoxiana territory mainly in Badakshan and Pamirs/Allai valley, as neighbors to the Rishikas in the Scythian land.
Kafir’s Fair Complexion : Clue To Historical Thread
Yes , With full trust upon the Vanvasi Ram people of Capisa Or Kafirs fought for thousand years against invaders at the very gate of Bharatvasrsha.They had full trust in their Ram. They ever hoped that one day their Ram will come back. But meanwhile we people of India forget Get way of India and fighters who were fighting there for generations for 1000 years since Islamic invasion began. Their fair complexion is clue to history.
Yes, a little group of warriors never left their land of Capisa. And entire bharatvarsha forgot those warriors for whom they were fighting.
How a small group of people can fight for 1000 years? Because they trust the departed kabulshahi king. They ever thought that one day he will come back with his full might and will save them. They were ardent Bhakt of Their Ram.Their Ram also trusted them most. And At last Ram reached them. They recognized him….but unfortunately people of Bharatvarsha forget their Ram and fighting Kafirs too. It was Irony of fate of those unknown fighters of Capisa and their Ram….forgotten children of Bharatvarsha.
But even Ram started worshipping those Kafirs who faught for 1000 years at Gate way of India. The Kafirs became “God” in the eyes of “Ram”…… ! Ram now worship those Kafirs as “God”. Even Ram became worshiper of “God” .Perhaps we lost our Ram at that pathetic historical event .While we could not recognize Ram and his kafir warrior Gods. We worship “Ram” but now Ram worship Gods like Kafir warriors.
In the coming chater we shall look to the facts of Kafir warriors who faught for 1000 years(Until 1896) at the very gate of Bharatvarsha and struggle of Ram to reach them…. their Gods…fighting kafirs..!
Again Agni Pariksha?
Lau and Cush sang Ramayana in streets of Ayodhya.They both were first singers of Ramayana. Both brothers were also witness to “Sita Agni Pariksha”. Both brothers were witness to their Mother’s submergence in Mother Earth. Arter that We ever remembered Ram but not Lau and Kush..We never hold them up on our shoulders.They remained just like “Forgotten child” for Bharatvarsha. But Now I am going to unfold the history to connect them with Bharatvarsha. They came back to Bharatvarsha at time of Crisis and again experienced what their mother experienced Ages before.
Did our deeds harrased and devided Ram? Once we had taken “Agni Pariksha” of Sitaji. But now we have taken Pariksha of Ram..?
AT THE END OF THE RESEARCH
AT END OF THE RESEARCH, I HAVE FOUND SECOND SIDE OF COIN.
I COME TO KNOW THAT SAMANIDS WHO PLAYED INSTRUMENTAL ROLE IN PROCESS OF CONVERSION OF PERSIA AND AFGHANISTAN….NOW DAYS TOOK NEW NAME SWAMINARAYAN AND TAKE CARE OF THE SLAVES WHO PLAYED INSTRUMENTAL ROLE TOO.
I COME TO KNOW THAT AS MUGHALS WERE REACHING LAND OF LAV NANDAN….THIS SLAVES AND ABBASIDS TOOK NEW FORM AT TWO NED OF ASIA. THEY TOOK SHLTERS IN MISRA AS WELL AS PUNJAB. SHIEKH TOOK FORM OF SHIKH , KHILAFAT TOOK FORM OF KHALSA, TAGHLAQ TOOK FORM OF TEGH BAHADUR….AND SO ON. MOST SLAVE SOLDIERS AND ENTITY WHO PLAYED INSTRUMENTAL ROLE FOR ABBASIDS CHANGED THIER FORMS AND HIDDEN THIER TREASURE IN THEIR NEW TEMPLES ,THAT THEY LOOTED FORM LAND OF LAV NANDAN.
With my all respect to fighter kafirs of kabul , who faught for 1000 years , now I want to put forward another fold of history.
The people who invaded Kabul as habit to change their forms….
Link to my another article that shaws present form of real invaders on land of Lav nandan.
Presently they are in This forms …..say that they came from Amu Dariya and hide their real identity of Muhmmad Ghori and Qutbbin…….Samanids also has changed their form. They afraid of Mughals who was behind them